Biological role of miRNA-146a at virus infections. Modern strategy of search of new safe pharmacological agents for treatment

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Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified as a key player in the posttranscriptional regulation of cellular-genes regulatory pathways. Here, we review the current knowledge on the interaction between RNA viruses and cellular miRNAs. We also discuss how cell and tissue-specific expression of miRNAs can directly affect viral pathogenesis. They also emerged as a significant regulator of the immune response. In particular, miR-146a acts as an importance modulator of function and differentiation cells of the innate and adaptive immunity. It has been associated with disorder including cancer and viral infections. Given its significance in the regulation of key cellular processes, it is not surprising which virus infection have found ways to dysregulation of miRNAs. miR-146a has been identified in exosomes (exosomal miR-146a). After the exosomes release from donor cells, they are taken up by the recipient cell and probably the exosomal miR-146a is able to modulate the antiviral response in the recipient cell and result in making them more susceptible to virus infection. In this review, we discuss recent reports regarding miR-146a expression levels, target genes, function, and contributing role in the pathogenesis of the viral infection and provide a clue to develop the new preventive and therapeutic strategies for medical treatment viral disease, and СOVID-19.

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About the authors

Petr D. Shabanov

Kirov Military-Medical Academy

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1464-1127
SPIN-code: 8974-7477

Dr. Med. Sci. (Pharmacology), Professor

Russian Federation, 6 Acad. Lebedes str., Saint Petersburg, 194044

Vladimir I. Vashchenko

Kirov Military-Medical Academy


Dr. Biol. Sci.

Russian Federation, 6 Acad. Lebedes str., Saint Petersburg, 194044


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