Kazan medical journal

Medical peer-review journal for physicians and researchers.

Editor-in-Chief: Ayrat U. Ziganshin, MD, PhD, Professor.

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Published bimonthly since 1901, distributed by subscription.

About: the Kazan Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed journal for clinicians and medical scientists, practicing physicians, researchers, teachers and students of medical schools, interns, residents and PhD students interested in perspective trends in international medicine.

Missions of the Journal are to spread the achievements of Russian and international biomedical sciences, to present up-to-date clinical recommendations, to provide a platform for a scientific discussion, experience sharing and publication of original researches in clinical and fundamental medicine.


 

 

 

 

 

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Vol 102, No 1 (2021)

To the readers of the Kazan Medical Journal
Abstract

В наступившем 2021 г. наш журнал отмечает 120-летие, поскольку в 1901 г. вышел первый номер «Казанского медицинского журнала». Однако в последние годы обнаружены сведения о том, что журнал ­имеет более продолжительную историю. Действительно, Общество врачей г. Казани в 1871 г. впервые печатным образом издало «Труды общества», а в 1872 г. Общество начало регулярно издавать периодический печатный журнал — «Дневник общества врачей города Казани». В 1900 г. Общество врачей при Императорском Казанском университете (правопреемник Общества врачей города Казани) на своём очередном заседании приняло решение о реорганизации журнала общества с переимено­ванием его в «Казанский медицинский журнал» и ежемесячным изда­нием. ­Таким образом, есть все основания считать, что журналу со всеми этапами его существования и с учётом всех его наименований в 2022 г. исполнится 150 лет!

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):5
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Теоретическая и клиническая медицина
Pharmacological stimulation of mesh implant engraftment after ventral hernia repair
Lukoyanychev E.E., Izmaylov S.G., Mironov A.A., Izmaylov A.G., Bodrov A.A., Bogdanov S.N., ­Kolchina O.S., Melnik S.A., Evsyukov D.A., Vadyaeva T.V.
Abstract

Aim. To study the effect of pyrimidine medication hydroxyethyldimethyldihydropyrimidine on the systemic inflammation after prosthetic repair of the anterior abdominal wall hernia.

Methods. We prospectively analyzed two groups of patients aged between 18 and 80 years, who underwent prosthetic repair of the aponeurosis defect in the anterior abdominal wall hernia with a standard polypropylene mesh implant. The main group (n=16) was given 0.5 g hydroxyethyldimethyldihydropyrimidine per os 3 times a day ¬before meals for 5–7 days from the first day after the operation. In the control group (n=16), patients received basic therapy without hydroxyethyldimethyldihydropyrimidine.

Results. The postoperative period in patients after elective prosthetic hernioplasty of anterior abdominal wall was associated with an imbalance of the immune system with a tendency to lymphocytopenia (count in blood changed by –27.0%; p=0.20, Wilcoxon criterion) without significant leukocytopenia (count in blood changed by –4.9%; p=1.00, Wilcoxon criterion) and an 82.8% increase in C-reactive protein content (p=0.2, Wilcoxon criterion) compared to baseline values before the surgery. The proposed pharmacological support of prosthetic hernioplasty of the anterior abdominal wall with hydroxyethyldimethyldihydropyrimidine allowed to correct the postoperative lymphocytopenia (p=0.04, U-criterion) and reduce the concentration of C-reactive protein by 223.6% (p=0.03, U-criterion) compared with the control, which was also associated with a decrease in the number of local complications of prosthetic hernioplasty.

Conclusion. The use of hydroxyethyldimethyldihydropyrimidine in patients after prosthetic hernioplasty is associated with a significant decrease in the C-reactive protein level, prevention of postoperative lymphocytopenia and a decrease in the number of local wound complications; C-reactive protein level can serve as one of the early and significant indicators of postoperative complications in this category of patients.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):6-11
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Efficiency of wound dressing made of powder cotton cellulose
Ksembaev S.S., Nesterov O.V., Khafizova L.N.
Abstract

Aim. To study the effectiveness of a wound dressing made of powdered cotton cellulose for open surgical wounds in the oral cavity.

Methods. The effectiveness of a wound dressing made of powdered cotton cellulose during vestibuloplasty was assessed based on clinical indicators. The study included 197 children aged 8–12 years (boys — 91, girls — 106), divided into 2 groups — the main group (100 children treated with powdered cotton cellulose wound dressing) and the comparison group (97 children, treated with a surgical gauze dressing). The number of children in clinical groups was determined by the “copy-pair” method. The dynamics of the postoperative period was assessed according to traditional clinical indicators (the presence of pain, inflammatory edema, hematomas, healing time, etc.). The severity of general and local clinical signs was determined by using the system of its assessment in points developed by us. Differences were considered significant at p <0.05.

Results. In the postoperative period, the patients of the main group had no complications — in contrast to the patients of the comparison group, who had pronounced edema and hematomas of the soft tissues of the chin, edema and hyperemia of the displaced flap. Changes in clinical signs severity in points also prevailed in the comparison group (p <0.001). The surgical wound showed complete epithelialization after 11.4±0.7 days in the main group and after 13.5±0.9 days in the comparison group. The reduction in the duration of treatment was 2.1±0.8 days.

Conclusion. When using a wound dressing made of powdered cotton cellulose, the wound is protected from the aggressive environment of the mouth, including microflora, food debris, etc., which excludes the possibility of its se­condary infection; there is no pain, postoperative inflammatory edema and hematomas; the surgical wound healing time is reduced; there are no contraindications, no side and allergic reactions.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):12-18
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Экспериментальная медицина
The effect of free radical stress correction on corticoid signaling in the kidney of rat with different resistance to hypoxia after systemic circulation arrest
Bayburina G.A., Samigullina A.F., Drozdova G.A.
Abstract

Aim. To assess the influence of the pathogenetic action of the succinate-containing drug on corticosteroid regulation in the kidney of rats with different resistance to hypoxia during recovery after systemic circulation arrest.

Methods. The object of the study was male non-inbred white rats weighing 200–220 g. A week after testing for resistance to hypoxia, a 5-minute systemic circulation arrest was simulated by intrathoracic clamping of the vascular bundle of the heart, followed by resuscitation. In the postresuscitation period, the experimental rats were once daily injected with a solution containing inosine + nicotinamide + riboflavin + succinic acid, and the control rats — 0.9% Sodium Chloride solution. The observation period was 35 days. We studied the content of corticosterone, aldosterone in blood plasma, gluco- and mineralocorticoid receptors, carbonylated proteins, dityrosine, and products that react with thiobarbituric acid in homogenates of the kidneys. Statistical data were presented as mean and standard deviation M±σ. Nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis (N) and Mann–Whitney (U) tests followed by Dunn test, Spearman correlation analysis were used. Differences were considered statistically significant at p ≤0.05.

Results. The use of succinate-containing preparation reduced the intensity of free radical processes in both groups of animals. Against this background, in low-resistance rats, on the 1st day, the concentration of glucocorticoid receptors statistically significantly increased to 117% (p <0.05), and then was comparable to the control; the greatest statistically significant changes in the level of mineralocorticoid receptors occurred on the 1st day (increase by 25%, p <0.001) and at 21–35th days (decrease by 22–30%, p <0.001). In highly resistant rats, the correction led to a shift in the maximum content of glucocorticoid receptors from the last day (134% of the control level, p <0.01 without therapy) to the 1st (123%, p <0.05 with succinate-containing therapy) and maintaining the receptors level comparable to the initial, in the future. The level of mineralocorticoid receptors in highly resistant rats was lower than in low resistant rats, both in the group without correction and with correction.

Conclusion. Correction of the course of the postresuscitation period with a succinate-containing drug in animals with a low resistance to hypoxia against the background of a decrease in the intensity of carbonyl stress and restoration of feedback mechanisms causes stabilization of glucocorticoid receptors level and a decrease in mineralocorticoid receptors to control values by the end of the experiment; in organisms highly resistant to hypoxia, against the background of correction, the activity of lipid peroxidation decreases and the level of both types of receptors are restored.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):19-29
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Age-related characteristic of human intervertebral discs from normal anatomy’s point of view
Makarova V.V., Volchihin M.V.
Abstract

Aim. To compare morphological characteristics between anterior and posterior parts of human intervertebral discs, taking into account age.

Methods. Fragments of 36 intervertebral discs C5C6, D5D6, L5S1 anterior parts taken from deceased persons aged 34 to 94 years, median age 61.0 (50.5; 71.8) years were examined. The comparison group consists of histopathological material obtained from 12 patients with radicular syndrome during planned L5S1 microdiscectomies aged 35–77 years, median age 48.5 (43.0; 58.8) years. There were no statistically significant differences in age between the studied groups (p=0.126023). All materials were divided into subgroups depending on the age of the deceased/operated: 34–52 and 60–94 years for material obtained from the deceased; 35–51 and 58–77 years — for material obtained after surgery. The differences between the three groups were examined by the Kruskal–Wallis test, and quantitative indicators in the two groups were compared by Mann–Whitney U-test.

Results. In the anterior part of the intervertebral discs, signs of degenerative-dystrophic changes were noted in all studied samples. All samples of nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus were fibrocartilage with no inflammation. Statistically significant differences (р=0.0283) were obtained in the number of isogenous groups of chondrocytes in intervertebral discs C5C6 anterior part compared with D5D6, L5S1 in individuals aged 34–52. Age subgroups (34–52 and 60–94 years old) differed significantly (р=0.0219) in the number of single chondrocytes according to results of morphometry of anterior part of intervertebral discs L5S1. Anterior and posterior parts of intervertebral discs L5S1 differed statistically significant in the number of isogenous groups of chondrocytes when comparing the subgroup of operated patients aged 35–51 years (р=0.008475) with the subgroup of deceased persons aged 34–52 years and the subgroup of operated patients aged 58–77 years (р=0.033753) with the subgroup of deceased aged 60–94 years.

Conclusion. Anterior and posterior part of intervertebral discs L5S1 had similar qualitative histological characteristics; however, the number of isogenous groups of chondrocytes in the posterior part of intervertebral discs L5S1 samples indicated a greater effect of compression loading compared to anterior part of the same spinal motion segment.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):30-38
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Обзоры
COVID-19: Political challenges for public health
Mukharyamova L.M., Zalyaev A.R., Shammazova E.Y.
Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has become not only an epidemiological and medical problem but also a challenge for all systems of society, a test for political institutions. The real threats to public health and the enormous pressure on public health systems have shaped the unprecedented coercive measures to limit mobility and social exclusion that governments have adopted to control the situation. The effectiveness of political institutions in the implementation of anti-epidemiological measures was different. The review considers interdisciplinary approaches to analy-zing a systemic crisis in a pandemic, which has revealed a close relationship between social and economic equality, health equity and population health. The disproportionately high correlation of mortality from new infection with structural inequality at the intersection of status, class, racial/ethnic minority, and profession is shown. The problems of politicization of the pandemic and social polarization, the influence of confidence in the state, the health care system, and healthcare professionals on compliance with recommended behaviors by various social groups are considered. The speed with which new scientific information is generated during a pandemic and the need for a quick response enhance the likelihood of misinformation appearing in the information environment. The article shows the danger of infodemic for the unity of society against the backdrop of the growing role of the media and social networks in supporting the population. Approaches to the problem of vaccine mistrust are examined, the need to develop a policy of equitable distribution of vaccines, educate the population to increase adherence to vaccination is shown. A post-coronavirus strategy for the development of public health has been proposed, which includes increasing investment in health systems, overcoming health inequities, caring for healthcare professionals, and developing biomedical science.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):39-46
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Possibilities for diagnosis and prediction of preterm labor at the present stage
Mudrov V.A., Ziganshin A.M., Yashchuk A.G., Dautova L.A., Badranova R.S.
Abstract

Preterm birth is one of the main causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality, which does not tend to decrease in rate. The risk of death in premature babies is 25–35 times higher than that of full-term babies, and stillbirths are registered 8–13 times more often than in timely delivery. To date, there are no effective ways to prevent preterm birth. Therefore, the timeliness of therapy, which largely determines the outcome of pregnancy in general, depends on the effectiveness of assessing the likelihood of their development. At the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Congress (2018), preterm birth is identified as a problem that has not yet been solved at the current stage of science and technology development. The result of the unsolved problems is a situation wherein the modern world over the past 60 years there has been no decrease in the premature birth rate, which is 9.5% of births and annually ends with the birth of 15,000,000 premature babies. The study aimed to research modern methods of diagnosis and prediction of spontaneous preterm birth. An analytical method was used in the study: a detailed systematic analysis of modern domestic and foreign literature on the diagnosis and prognosis of preterm birth. We used eLibrary, Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library bibliographic databases (until August 2020). The article deals with the diagnosis and prediction of preterm birth probability, which will optimize the management of patients from the risk group and, in the future, will reduce the rate of perinatal morbidity and mortality of premature babies. Despite a significant number of researches devoted to the study of possibilities for diagnosing and predicting spontaneous preterm birth, currently, there are no methods with absolute diagnostic value. Most -existing studies indicate that when assessing the probability of preterm birth, a comprehensive approach should be preferred taking into account the results of several main and additional methods.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):47-59
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Modern methods of surgical treatment of staghorn nephrolithiasis
Sitdykova M.E., Viktorov E.A., Zubkov A.J.
Abstract

Staghorn nephrolithiasis is a form of urolithiasis characterized by kidney stones formation that partially or completely fills the collecting system. Staghorn nephrolithiasis has a malignant course, accompanied by collecting system retention and impaired renal function. This pathology is a common cause of disability, which is particularly importance in the context of its prevalence among people of working age. The review systematizes the currently relevant data on surgery of staghorn nephrolithiasis, presents methods of surgical treatment, defines the selection options within them, their advantages and disadvantages, indications, contraindications and complications. This information can help in making an informed decision and increase the effectiveness of treatment for patients with that disease. At the moment, there is an arsenal of treatment options for staghorn nephrolithiasis, among them mi¬nimally invasive high-tech operations are the most advanced and recognized as the methods of choice. The modernization of existing technologies increases their efficiency and safety, but their high cost and the impossibility of using in some cases often make one prefer more traumatic radical interventions. Traditional surgery remains a reliable method of treatment, allowing simultaneous operations and treatment of complex cases of the disease. The possibility of combining existing methods allows for the effective removal of staghorn stones in different groups of patients. Thus, a careful and differentiated approach to the methods of surgical treatment of staghorn nephrolithiasis, their use in combination allows ensuring high efficiency of surgical treatment of this pathology.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):60-73
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Complications of endoscopic esophageal stent implantation
Ivanov A.I., Popov V.A., Burmistrov M.V.
Abstract

Endoscopic esophageal stent implantation is an effective method for dysphagia management in malignant esophageal stricture. However, this technology is associated with the risk of many complications, including those fatal to life. These include bleeding, restenosis, stent fragmentation and destruction, stent migration, pneumomediastinum, the formation of esophageal fistulas, perforations, clogging of the stent with food, retrosternal pain, gastroesophageal reflux changes, airway compression, aspiration pneumonia, and fever. The overall complication rate is 36–40%. Mortality rates associated with stenting is between 3.9 and 27.2%. Nevertheless, today there are ways to minimize the incidence of complications due to the constant progress of endoscopic technologies and improvements in the design of modern stents. In addition, most endoscopic interventions can manage the vast majority of complications effectively after stent implantation subject to their early detection. Optimal selection of an esophageal stent and careful selection of patients with a low risk of complications associated with stent implantation are important problems in the prevention of complications to achieve high efficiency of stenting. Evaluation of risk factors for possible complications, the design of stents and their characteristics, as well as using modern methods of effective management of possible complications improves the quality and duration of life in incurable patients with esophageal cancer. The review reflects all possible complications of stenting in esophageal and gastroesophageal junction, factors affecting the occurrence of complications, as well as modern and effective methods of their correction and prevention.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):74-84
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Relevance of the problem and the current situation with infectious morbidity in the Russian ­Federation
Kravchenko I.E., Galieva A.M., Vafin A.Y.
Abstract

The article provides an overview of domestic and foreign literary sources devoted to an urgent challenge in modern health care — infectious morbidity. The extraordinary socio-economic importance of infectious diseases at the present stage throughout the world, including in the Russian Federation, based on their global spread and high economic losses associated with disability, treatment costs and anti-epidemic measures. In recent decades, the emergence of previously unknown “new” infectious diseases and the return of “old” infections, many of which pose a high epidemiological danger and are characterized by high mortality, have been noted. Among the significant reasons for the emergence of “new” infections, an increase in infectious diseases, changes in the nature of the course of known diseases, it is necessary to note such reasons as a change in a person's lifestyle and the introduction of new technologies. In Russia, a high incidence of acute respiratory infections is recorded annually. An increase in the incidence of acute intestinal infections of viral etiology and a decrease in the incidence of these diseases of bacterial etiology are noted. An urgent problem is the high level of morbidity and mortality from infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, as well as the incidence of chronic viral hepatitis and an increase in mortality from their unfavorable outcomes. Natural focal infections remain an important problem, among which hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and tick-borne infections occupy a significant place. The threat of the invasion of infections that cause emergencies in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population into the Russian Federation territory remains. Infectious diseases are becoming one of the leading causes of premature mortality in the working-age population. In 2020, the Russian Federation faced the pandemic of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19, which led to high morbidity and mortality. Thus, infectious diseases are an urgent problem for the Russian Federation at the present stage, necessitates the development of a targeted program to reduce morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):85-91
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Клинические наблюдения
Results of orthodontic treatment of a child with asymmetrical micrognathia and the congenital mandibular condylar hyperplasia
Ayupova F.S., Khotko R.A., Vinichenko E.L., Lovlin V.N.
Abstract

Aim. To analyze the results of orthodontic treatment of a child with asymmetrical micrognathia and mandiblar condylar hyperplasia.

Methods. The configuration of a face in the photos was evaluated and diagnostic models of the jaws were analyzed by using the Pont’s and Korkhaus methods in treatment dynamics. The physiological status of bone tissue, temporomandibular joints and teeth was studied by using orthopantomography and computed tomography. Functional disorders were detected by using special tests, including Eschler–Bittner's test and Ilyina-Markosyan’s test. Orthodontic treatment and stimulation of mandibular growth in the mixed dentition stage were undertaken with the single jaw removable appliances and the appliance improved by us for correction of the distal occlusion. The Damon Q bra­cket system with archwires was used in permanent dentition period.

Results. The child's convex facial profile was typical for distal occlusion and micrognathia. The facial asymmetry, increasing with mouth opening, and a decrease in mandibular range of motion indicated lesion of the right temporomandibular joint. The right condyle was enlarged on the orthopantomogram. The computed tomography showed that it was asymmetrically enlarged and had a cellular structure. There was detected asymmetric micrognathia. The comprehensive rehabilitation plan included orthodontic treatment, myotherapy, speech therapy, mechanotherapy. The use of removable orthodontic appliances led to the normal size of the dentition and their relation, significantly reduced functional disorders and improved facial aesthetics. Five years after completion of orthodontic treatment, the physiological occlusion and amplitude of the mandibular movements remained, but the right mandibular angle was flattened.

Conclusion. The comprehensive rehabilitation of a child with asymmetrical micrognathia and mandibular condylar hyperplasia started in mixed dentition stage provided conditions for the formation of normal permanent dentition and the improvement of functional disorders and facial aesthetics; our results allow us to suggest the positive effect of our tactics for treatment of the patient.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):92-99
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The option of surgery for gastric stump cancer in patients who have previously undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy
Akhmetzyanov F.S., Valiev N.A., Egorov V.I., Shaymardanov M.I.
Abstract

Gastric stump cancer is a carcinoma which forms no earlier than 5 years after surgery for benign disease. The incidence ranges from 2.4 to 5% among patients with stomach cancer. Previous operations lead to the emergence of an adhesive process in the abdominal cavity, changes in the anatomy and topography of the abdominal organs, as well as the development of new ways of lymph outflow. These factors lead to the re-surgery becomes technically more complicated and requires high professional training from the surgeon. Of particular surgical interest is the issue of restoration of the digestive tract, which directly depends on the nature and volume of the previous surgery. In this paper, the authors describe cases of surgical treatment of gastric stump cancer in two patients, who had previously undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):100-103
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Обмен клиническим опытом
Hybrid approach of arterial allograft application in reconstructive surgery of the great arteries
Kalinin R.E., Suchkov I.A., Karpov V.V., Solianik N.A., Pshennikov A.S., Egorov A.A.
Abstract

The article presents a case of a hybrid intervention using an arterial allograft on the great arteries of the lower extremities in a patient with chronic limb threatening ischemia and prosthetic infection. The patient has a history of repeated operations using synthetic polytetrafluoroethylene and dacron prostheses. In the early postoperative period, a clinical presentation of the prosthesis bed suppuration developed. The article shows the main phases of patient treatment: removal of synthetic prostheses, transplantation of the donor femoral artery, and balloon angioplasty of the popliteal and anterolateral arteries. In the postoperative period, blood circulation in the lower limb is fully compensated, and the dorsal pedis artery pulse is determined. Wounds were healed by primary intention. At the control visit after 6 months, no adverse events were revealed; according to the data of duplex scanning, the main blood flow in the arteries of the leg was recorded, the blood circulation was fully compensated. Thus, hybrid intervention using arterial allograft and balloon angioplasty of the popliteal and anterolateral tibial arteries proved to be an effective method of treatment in the current clinical situation.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):104-109
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История медицины
Surgeon, citizen, teacher (to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Professor I.S. Nikolaev)
Naumov A.G., Shprykov A.S., Sutyagina D.A., Kryukov E.R., Bochkarev P.A., Spiridonov M.A.
Abstract

The article provides information about a prominent Nizhny Novgorod surgeon, the first head of the tuberculosis ¬department of the Gorky Medical Institute named after S.M. Kirov (now Privolzhsky Research Medical University) Ivan Semenovich Nikolaev. Ivan Semyonovich Nikolaev went through the horrors of the Great Patriotic War, worked with prominent doctors of his time (L.V. Bogush, B.A. Korolev, S.S. Yudin), achieved unprecedented success in the surgical treatment of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, received the degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences after defending the candidate's thesis (for the first time in the history of the Gorky Medical Institute named after S.M. Kirov) due to the uniqueness and fundamental nature of the scientific materials presented. Professor Ivan Semyonovich Nikolaev successfully combined pedagogical, scientific and medical work with great organizational and social work. For many years, I.S. Nikolaev was a member of the board of the All-Union and All-Russian ¬Society of Phthisiologists, for more than 20 years he was the Chairman of the Board of the Gorky Scientific Medical Society of Phthisiologists, a member of the editorial board of the journal “Problems of Tuberculosis”. Many times Ivan Semyonovich Nikolaev represented the Nizhny Novgorod phthisiology and medical institute at the All-Union and All-Russian congresses and conferences of phthisiologists was a member of their presidiums. In 1988, Ivan Semyonovich Nikolaev, due to his age, left the position of head of the tuberculosis department and worked as a consultant professor for several years, and then retired. In recent years, he lived in his native village Paustovo (Vyaznikovsky district, Vladimir region). In 1999, Ivan Semyonovich died.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):110-114
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Academician Andrei Dmitrievich Ado and the Kazan Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology
Reshetnikova I.D., Dunaev P.D.
Abstract

The article was prepared for the 120th anniversary of the Kazan Scientific — Research Institute of Epidemio¬logy and Microbiology and the 110th anniversary of the birth of the academician, laureate of the USSR State Prize, the author of fundamental guidelines on allergology and pathological physiology, an honorary member of scienti¬fic ¬societies of many countries Andrei Dmitrievich Ado who is a representative of the famous dynasty of scientists and doctors of Mislawski-Ado. The paper presents materials about the dynasty — A.A. Mislavsky, N.A. Mislavsky, A.N. Mislavsky and others; information about the Kazan period of A.D. Ado between 1938 and 1952 during his work at Kazan Scientific — Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology (Kazan Institute of Epidemio¬logy and Microbiology until 1942). The article was prepared using documents from the archives of Kazan Scienti¬fic — Research Institute of Epidemiology, Microbiology, Kazan Medical University, memoirs of their colleagues.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):115-122
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Некролог
Professor Anatoly Vasilievich Ivanov
Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):123
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Резюме Кокрейновских обзоров
Measures implemented in the school setting to contain the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid scoping review
Abstract

Для борьбы с распространением инфекции SARS-CoV-2 и пандемии COVID-19 страны мира приняли целый ряд мер в области общественного здоровья. Во многих странах закрытие школ было одним из первых ответов. К середине апреля 2020 г. 192 страны закрыли школы, что затронуло более 90% мирового контингента учащихся. Это серьёзно нарушило школьную, семейную и трудовую жизнь, в том числе и с вероятными негативными последствиями.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):124-125
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Care bundles for improving outcomes in patients with COVID-19 or rela­ted conditions in intensive care — a rapid scoping review
Abstract

Для людей с COVID-19 и сопутствующими заболеваниями (такими, как вирусная пневмония, которая также вызывает серьёзные затруднения дыхания) использование комплектов помощи будет означать, что практикующие врачи применяют каждый метод/практику каждый раз в пакете (совместно). Реализация этих практик вместе, а не по отдельности, должна привести к лучшим исходам у пациентов. ­Использование пакетов помощи должно также уменьшить различия в способах оказания помощи и может улучшить работу коллектива, необходимую для обеспечения высококачественного медицинского обслуживания, что также приводит к лучшим исходам у пациентов.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):125-126
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Recruitment manoeuvres for adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving mechanical ventilation
Abstract

Острая дыхательная недостаточность — это распространённое состояние среди взрослых, госпитализированных в отделения интенсивной терапии (ОИТ). Хотя дыхательная недостаточность имеет много причин, она может быть вызвана состоянием, известным как острый респираторный дистресс‐синдром (ОРДС). Этот термин описывает состояние, когда оба лёгких были повреждены и воспалены по одной из нескольких причин и не могут нормально функционировать для обеспечения организма кислородом и вывода углекислого газа. Это приводит к низкому уровню кислорода в крови. Пациентам может понадобиться подключение к аппарату ИВЛ (дыхательный аппарат) для поддержки дыхания. Эта методика известна как искусственная вентиляция лёгких. Поддерживающая терапия при искусственной вентиляции лёгких — это важный элемент стандартного ухода за пациентами с ОРДС.

Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):127
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Author guidelines
Kazan medical journal. 2021;102(1):128-136
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