Craniocervical instability in children with Down’s syndrome

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Abstract


Introduction. Pathology of the craniovertebral zone in children with Down’s syndrome is a very important topic, because of the high risk for developing neurological complications in these patients, after even a minor trauma.

Material and methods. We performed a review of the literature highlighting the disorders of the cervical spine in children with Down’s syndrome.

Results. We gathered data on the etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of craniocervical instability in children with Down’s syndrome. We reviewed the existing surgical treatment options, and presented our own clinical cases. We also developed a protocol for the management of these patients.

Discussions. Understanding the several forms of craniocervical instability in children with Down’s syndrome is very important. As it is a very dangerous condition that can lead to devastating neurological deficits, all medical specialties working with these patients should be aware of them. There are clinical and radiological criteria for this condition that can help in the management of such patients. Surgical treatment is an effective option, but it has a high complication rate and rarely results in neurological improvement.


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About the authors

Nikita O Khusainov

The Turner Scientific and Research Institute for Childrens Orthopedics

Author for correspondence.
Email: nikita_husainov@mail.ru
MD, PhD student of the Turner Scientific and Research Institute for Children’s Orthopedics

Sergei V Vissarionov

The Turner Scientific and Research Institute for Childrens Orthopedics

Email: turner01@mail.ru
MD, PhD, professor, Deputy Director for Research and Academic Affairs, head of the department of spinal pathology and neurosurgery. The Turner Scientific and Research Institute for Children’s Orthopedics. Professor of the chair pediatric traumatology and orthopedics. North-Western State Medical University n. a. I.I. Mechnikov.

Dmitriy N Kokushin

The Turner Scientific and Research Institute for Childrens Orthopedics

Email: nikita_husainov@mail.ru
MD, research associate of the department of spinal pathology and neurosurgery. The Turner Scientific and Research Institute for Children’s Orthopedics.

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Copyright (c) 2016 Khusainov N.O., Vissarionov S.V., Kokushin D.N.

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