Modern principles of cardiovascular disease prevention

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Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world, primarily in low-and middle-income countries, including Russian Federation. According to WHO experts, the global atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease epidemic can be brought under control mainly by improving the cardiovascular prevention. This paper describes the modern principles of risk assessment in people without manifested atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, as well as considers drug and non-drug methods of primary prevention.

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About the authors

Leonid L. Bershtein

North-West State Medical University Named after I.I. Mechnikov

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9444-159X
SPIN-code: 6744-4034
Scopus Author ID: 24833097000
ResearcherId: N-9985-2014

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, 41 Kirochnaya str., Saint Petersburg, 191015


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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Fig. 1. Updated SCORE chart for European populations at high cardiovascular disease risk (by ESC Guidelines, 2019)

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2. Fig. 2. Life-time risk assessment chart

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3. Fig. 3. An example of coronary calcium imaging required for measuring the coronary calcium score

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4. Fig. 4. Measurement of a carotid plaque area

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Copyright (c) 2021 Bershtein L.L.

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