No 5 (2019)

Использование космической информации о Земле
Monitoring of landslide processes by means of l-band radar interferometric observations: Bureya river bank caving case.
Bondur V.G., Zakharova L.N., Zakharov A.I., Chimitdorzhiev T.N., Dmitriev A.V., Dagurov P.N.

The potential of PALSAR-1 (ALOS-1 sat.) and PALSAR-2 (ALOS-2 sat.) L-band radars interferometric observations of the landslide processes is analyzed in this paper with reference to Bureya riverbank landfall occurred in December 2018 when more than 18.5 million m3 of soils crashed into the riverbed. The displacements of the landslide surface were detected and total amplitudes of displacements even on the 2-years’ time intervals were estimated. Summer images were less informative because of abrupt loss of coherence in the case of heavy precipitations happened during the radar observation. Winter observations made at negative air temperatures are mainly coherent because of temporal stability of dielectric properties of trees and underlying soils. The history of landslide dynamics on decadelong interval is reconstructed. According to our estimations, the velocities of summer displacements are typically higher than wintertime ones. The displacements were low in 2006–2010 (1.6–1.9 cm/month), then they increased significantly in 2015–2016 (4.7–4.9 cm/month), the maximal measured velocity in summer 2016 reached 10.7 cm/month. It is likely that the activation of the landslide process corresponds to the time of completion of the reservoir filling in 2006–2009, and it was provoked by both the initial rising and seasonal oscillations of the water level.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(5):3-14
Local katabatic winds of the Russian Federation and their observation from space using SAR imagery.
Ivanov A.Y.

Data from the spaceborne synthetic aperture radars (SAR) provide new opportunities for observing and studying local katabatic winds (bora, foehn) in various marine regions of the Russian Federation and adjacent countries. The impact of these winds on the characteristics of small-scale wind waves leads to the formation of characteristic manifestations on the sea surface which are displayed on SAR images. Satellite SAR images, in contrast to sub-satellite observations, make it possible to see the phenomenon in the coastal zones of seas and large lakes, judge the spatial scale of the phenomenon and determine a number of it quantitative characteristics. Analysis of collected SAR images shows that local winds, bora-like and foehn-like, have similar characteristics and cover vast areas of the inland and marginal seas of the Russian Federation. The similarity of the surface manifestations of the local winds, clearly speaks about the same physical and aerohydrodynamic mechanisms of their display on SAR images. It is shown that spaceborne SAR data and images, which are two-dimensional spatial patterns of “frozen wind”, are extremely useful for research and monitoring local winds over the seas of the Russian Federation, especially where the network of weather stations is extremely rare.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(5):15-35
The use of mini-drifters in coastal current measurements conducted concurrently with satellite imaging.
Lavrova O.Y., Soloviev D.M., Strochkov A.Y., Nazirova K.R., Krayushkin E.V., Zhuk E.V.

The results of field measurements of coastal currents using Lagrangian mini-drifters are presented. Drifter experiments were conducted concurrently with satellite imaging using Sentinel-2 MSI, Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-3 OLCI sensors. It is shown that the use of an inexpensive and simple to manufacture device, which is a mini-drifter, allows obtaining operational information about the parameters of coastal currents. In the experiments of April-May, 2019, in the northeastern part of the Black Sea, it was possible to estimate the velocity of coastal currents and determine the minimum distance that Black Sea Rim Current approached the coast. The trajectories of mini-drifters revealed the manifestations of inertial oscillations whose spatial characteristics are almost impossible to measure in any other way. The influence of the vortex structures detected in visible satellite images on the distribution of mini-drifters was estimated.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(5):36-49
Alteration tendencies of upcoming on the upper atmosphere boundary solar radiation and theirs spatial localization
Fedorov V.M., Sokratov S.A., Frolov D.M.

Satellite measurements of total flow of upcoming to the Earth solar radiation (Total solar irradiance) are performed since 1977. At present time continues measurement series of total flow of upcoming solar radiation are obtained. In long-term measurements of solar radiation the eleven-year cycle and its amplitude is revealed. However in regularity of solar radiation income to the Earth (without consideration of atmosphere) and spatial distribution of it along the Earth surface (solar climate of the Earth) two mechanisms having different physical nature are marked out. One mechanism is related to variation of solar activity. Another mechanism is defined by celestial mechanical processes varying elements of Earth orbit (Earth-Sun distance, tropical year duration, etc.), Earth rotation axis declination and related to it variation in Earth insolation. Performed calculations of Earth insolation related to celestial mechanical processes are the basis for differentiation of remote sensing data on total solar irradiance regarding mechanisms of different physical nature. The possibility of estimation of contribution of solar activity and celestial mechanical processes in variation of total flow of upcoming to the Earth solar radiation is created.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(5):50-58
Detailed geological mapping of the Olon-Ovoot gold-ore cluster (South Mongolia) based on the interpretation of satellite imagery of medium and high spatial resolution.
Zadorozhnyy M.V., Zolnikov I.D., Glushkova N.V.

Detailed geological mapping of Olon-Ovoot gold-ore cluster (South Mongolia) on the basis of interpretation of satellite imagery of medium and high spatial resolution The article presents the results of geological interpretation the territory of the Olon-Ovoot ore cluster by space imagery of medium and high spatial resolution. A Sentinel-2 imagery, chosen for interpretation, was orthorectified and reduced to a common spatial resolution (10m) The iron-hydroxid and ferrous-silicates indices in Sentinel-2 imagery were used to detect the perspective gold-bearing objects. The sub-pixel structure of the imagery Sentinel-2 were analyzed by means of satellite imagery of high spatial resolution by Google Earth for detecting areas concentration of the quartz-carbonate veins. The study of the spectral domain in high-resolution imagery not necessary for detecting lineaments by structural and morphological interpretation. The interpretation of the remote sensing data provide a unique opportunity to substantial specify the geological structure of the territory and change the level of mapping from the scale of 1 : 200 000 to the scale of 1 : 20 000 for the perspective areas. The integration of satellite images of different functional scale provided an tenfold increase for some geological objects (for example dikes). Detailed mapping of the territory allowed to come for geoinformation modeling of geological structural elements and predictive indicators.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(5):59-71
Methods and Means of Space Data Processing and Interpretation
The use of matrixes of heights srtm in the preliminary calculations and mapping of depths and potential flood inundation of fluvial plain.
Orlyankin V.N., Aleshina A.R.

The article shows the possibility of using the SRTM model in order to search for the best options for detailed ground-based engineering surveys in flat-tree-free areas. The authors conducted a study of the accuracy of the SRTM model for the territory of the Russian Federation to the south of 60° N and neighboring countries (17 countries of Europe and 10 countries of Asia). A mapped zonality map of the identified systematic errors of the SRTM matrix of heights is shown. Using the example of the Ramensky section of the Moscow River valley (near the cities of Zhukovsky and Ramenskoye), the absolute heights of the surface of the flood flood zone were determined, the boundaries and depths of flooding were calculated and mapped during a flood of 1% of the coverage. Maps of engineering protection objects from flooding of the territory of this site on a scale of 1:100 000 and larger, as well as parts of the Moscow and Oka river valleys on a smaller scale 1:1 000000 are proposed.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(5):72-81
Космические аппараты, системы и программы ИЗК
Small satellites in remote sensing of the Earth
Gansvind I.N.

Innovative technological advances are considered as was used for brings for gave rise to small satellite, new opportunities for remote sensing based on multitudinous constellations of small satellites whereby it makes possible to meet the need for systematic continuous shooting with a minimum interval between views of any area of the Ears at reasonable cost. The aim of the work is to study possibilities and limitations associated with the use of small satellites in the field of remote sensing. This is an area of the study the consideration of design, deployment and operation problems of small satellites constellations The main problems to use of small satellites in Russian space activities   identified and their overcoming in the development of the small satellites Russian standard is proposed.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(5):82-88
Evaluation of functional expectations of thematic consumers from optical space remote sensing systems of medium resolution
Selin V.A., Emelyanov A.A., Sizov O.S., Emelyanov K.S., Borisov A.V.

According to the results of direct interaction with various groups of consumers, it was established that the structure of requirements in all thematic areas at the present time comes to the fore geographic coverage, regularity and frequency of shooting. The second priority is to ensure the quality of the spectroradiometric characteristics in the context of their absolute performance and stability in the time series of the entire archive of the survey with the ability to provide data in physical quantities of reflectivity, or spectral brightness of the reflected radiation / brightness temperature. The requirements for spatial resolution within a separately allocated class of data, as well as the presence of a panchromatic channel are not significant for the majority of respondents. In the understanding of thematic users, the mediated requirements for the characteristics of the target remote sensing equipment are formed through direct requirements for the initial remote sensing data. When creating a promising ERS satellite on the part of the state customer, it is advisable to conduct regular advanced studies of user expectations and preferences in order to fully coordinate and integrate them into technical specifications for various products of the space system. In general, for effective generalization of various, often opposite, functional expectations, it is advisable to conduct a comprehensive discussion that provides a feedback mechanism from both authorized representatives of main consumers and developers of target equipment and space remote sensing systems.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(5):89-98

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