Vol 151, No 6 (2019): Выпуск 6

Russia at the World Ocean: geoeconomic and geopolitical interests, scale and formats of «presence»
Druzhinin A.G., Lachininskii S.S.

One of the modern global trends is the accelerated formation of a “blue economy” based on transport and logistics, resource-raw materials and other capabilities of the seas and oceans, which occupy more than 70% of the Earth’s surface. The article substantiates the growth of the geo-economic and geopolitical significance of the World Ocean for Russia and the realization of its geopolitical and geo-economic interests. Based on a critical review of research and the views of domestic and foreign scientists concerned the implementation of the geo-economic and geopolitical strategies of world and some leading regional actors, the interests and opportunities of Russia and its business structures in the regions of the World Ocean are shown. The geo-economic and geopolitical aspects of the presence of Russia are examined with a focus on the activities of national business structures, the Navy as well. The priority areas of Russia's presence in the regions of the World Ocean are determined.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(6):1-19
Geography of braided rivers within the territory of Russia
Chalov R.S., Chalova E.R.

The paper represents the geographical analysis of braided river channels development and distribution for the first time in Russian Scientific Literature. On a small-scale map of Russia we display the distribution of braided channels on small and middle mountain, semi-mountain and plain rivers, in free and limited conditions of channel changes development (on rivers with wide floodplain and incised channel), which are determined by geologic-geomorphologic structure of the territory. On the large and largest rivers we distinguish braided reaches of different morphological types according to the MSU classification (single, conjugated, one-sided and alternate one-sided, sub-parallel branches, etc) and also bifurcations as a consequence of meander cut-off which complicate the morphology of straight and meandering channels. Separately we display bifurcations on the other structural levels of channel processes development — point mid-channel bifurcations on mountain reaches of large rivers, split channels and deltaic braided reaches. The causes of different types of braided channels development in different natural conditions are described.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(6):20-34
Climate variability of Veliky Novgorod over the last 120 years
Boitsov V.D.

Two climatic phases were revealed in dynamics of annual air temperature in Veliky Novgorod during last 120 years: moderate cold (1899—1970) and warm (1988—2018). Mean rate of air temperature increasing during the recent warming consisted 0.47 °С per 10 years. The highest growth of air temperature was observed in spring and autumn. It was established that this process in other regions of the North-Western federal district of Russian Federation also began in the late 1980s. The highest mean positive anomaly of annual air temperature in 1988—2018 was observed in Veliky Novgorod and Naryan-Mar (1.3 °С), while the lowest one — in Vologda (0.9 °С). It was shown that start of the recent climate warming in the North-Western European Russia coincided with weakening of meridional type of atmospheric circulation and intensification of western transfer of air masses from Northern Atlantic water area.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(6):35-45
The contribution of emissions from industrial zones of Izhevsk to the formation of the medical and ecological situation
Gagarin S.A., Malkova I.L., Semakina A.V.

The article presents a brief description of the main industrial zones of Izhevsk as sources of air pollution. The potential aerotechnogenic hazard of industrial sites, their contribution to the formation and spatial differentiation of the complex atmospheric air pollution index, based on the volume and structure of pollutant emissions, are estimated. Air sampling at flare observation posts allowedto conclude that the maximum concentrations of pollutants are observed at a distance of 2—3 km from the borders of industrial zones in the direction of the prevailing south and south-west winds. A territorial analysis of the general incidence rate of the child population in the service territories of 12 childrenʼs city clinics and 170 pediatric sites confirms these findings. The most disadvantaged situation is typical for microdistricts located in the north and northeast relative to the Central industrial zone. Despite a significant reduction in emissions by enterprises of this industrial site, it should be noted its significant contribution to the formation of a tense medical and environmental situation in most residential areas of the city. The increase of emissions in recent years, the largest northeastern industrial zone in Izhevsk, even taking into account its most favorable ecological and geographical position, has led to a significant increase in the general incidence and prevalence of respiratory diseases of the children in the adjacent territory. In the formation of inhaled non-carcinogenic risk to public health, the contribution of formaldehyde is more than 90 %.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(6):46-57
The pattern of power frequency electromagnetic fields in the Pushkin municipal area of Saint Petersburg
Sturman V.I.

The study of patterns of electric fields intensity indicators and a magnetic induction in the Pushkin municipal area of Saint Petersburg has been executed. It is established that intensity of electric fields reaches significant sizes only near to air high-voltage transmission lines. Magnetic induction over admissible levels is not noted, but within city territory its size change largely that had been represented on the original map. The dependence of indicators of magnetic induction on the land use and building of territories in Pushkin is rather simple: the minimum values are registered in the parks, squares and boulevards, the averages are in the built-up territories, the raised are in anomalies. Magnitudes over hygienic standard are not noted. Magnitudes over the approximate safer limit 400 nTl are observed in Pushkin area only in places of underground cables. As a whole, the Pushkin area is characterized by the indicators of magnetic induction lowered in comparison with another cities.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(6):58-68
To Moscow ot to Saint Petersburg? Population gravity of the Tver Region according to the data of «VKontakte» online network
Smirnov I.P., Vinogradov D.M., Alexeev A.I.

The article is devoted to the studying the population’s attraction to large centers. On the example of the Tver region it is shown how the position between capitals affects the characteristics of population movement. Due to the lack of official statistics at the municipal district level, the main source of information in this work were the data of the «VKontakte» social network. At the first stage, aggregated materials of the «Virtual Population of Russia» site were used. At the second stage, the communities of some rural settlements in the «VKontakte» network were studied. The main centers of attraction for the population of the Tver region are Tver, Moscow and St. Petersburg, and the capitals share their areas of influence almost equally. The northern districts gravitate towards St. Petersburg, the southern — towards Moscow. The urban population, including the population of Rzhev, Torzhok and Bezhetsk, gravitates towards Moscow, and the rural population of the region gravitates towards St. Petersburg. The obtained conclusions actualize and complement the results of previous work on the topic.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(6):69-80
Unusual (ice?) formations in the area of the Vneshniye ostrova of Finnish bay
Terekhov E.N., Yurmanov A.A.

When carrying out complex expeditions of the Russian Geographical Society within the archipelago of the Vneshniye Ostrova (Outer Islands) of the Gulf of Finland, fundamentally new geological objects were found, that were not previously known, some of them were identified as secondary quartzites, others whose nature is debatable are discussed in this article. On the island of Moshchnyj greeted boulders with a destroyed upper hemisphere. The nature of the destruction resembles the structures known as the Cone of Destruction or «Shatter Cone», which in some cases are the only indicators of a meteorite nature for some ring structures. Three options for the formation of destroyed boulders are discussed: external meteorite impact similar to the structures of the “Shatter Cone” type, as a result of an endogenous explosion followed by coffered collapse of fragments of deep rocks and the main version is the fall of large boulders from a vertical glacier cliff and their impact on the underlying boulder, which under the influence of impact cracks. A similar situation is possible within the regional part of the cover glacier, which was located in the area of the future Island of Moshchnyj and known as the Neva end moraine with age of the 12 000 years.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(6):81-93
Possibilities and limits of physical and mathematical interpretation in landscape science
Tyutyunnik Y.G.

Physical reductionism and mathematical formalization in landscape science have their fundamental limitations. Reductionism is limited because it is impossible to fully explain complex phenomena and reduce them to simpler ones (this has been discussed and demonstrated in philosophical and methodological literature repeatedly). Mathematical formalizations are fundamentally limited by the irrational, emotional, symbolic aspects of human existence, which is an organic component of the landscape. This follows from the very nature of mathematical discourse in its closest to landscape and geographical form — in the form of the theory of sets. This is the basic idea of the article. Ontological and epistemological limits of physical and mathematical formalization in landscape studies do not allow to say that the latter can be fully represented and interpreted within the framework of the so-called geophysical paradigm, which is the subject of the article of V. V. Sysuev. («Izvestiya RGO», 2019, vyp. 4, p. 61—83).

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(6):94-103

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