Vol 151, No 2 (2019)

Development of the legal framework of recreational nature management in Russia
Isachenko T.E., Kosarev A.V.

The article traces the history of the development of legal legislation related to the recreational development of the territory. Five stages of formation are considered. For each stage the types of recreational areas are characterized. These types are reflected in the regulatory legal acts of each time period. Recreational nature management takes a significant place in the structure of nature management in Russia. It's modern regulatory and legal framework is analyzed in particular. The study revealed the main problems of involving territories in the recreational sphere from the standpoint of the main normative documents — the codes of the Russian Federation: Land, Water, Forest and Town-planning and Federal laws supplementing them. The analysis of the current legislation and the terminology used in it provides the basis for the correlation of recreational nature management with five categories of land: forest lands, agricultural lands, water resources, build-up areas (settlements) and lands of specially protected areas and objects. The necessity of integration of the concepts of «cultural landscape», «landscape planning» and «landscape plan» in the legal field with the aim of streamlining the process of planning and design of recreational areas and synchronization of the legislation in the sphere of recreational nature management is suggested in the article.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(2):1-18
The main trends of spatial development of modern Albania
Martynov V.L., Sazonova I.E.

The article deals with the main problems of spatial development of modern Albania. It is argued that the study of Albania by Russian socio-economic geography has paid little attention. In the Russian mass consciousness, this country is surrounded by a lot of inventions that have nothing to do with reality: one of these inventions is the perception of Albania as a purely Muslim country and in general the outpost of the «Islamic world». In fact, Albania is a multi-religious state, but religious differences do not matter much for Albanians. In the geodemographic development of modern Albania there is a steady increase in the share of the center of the country, which now exceeds 50 % of the population. As a Center, the authors consider two main cities, Tirana and Durres, that does not correlate with the official zoning of Albania. The sharp increase in the share of the Center shows the similarity of Albania with Asian states, and in general it can be argued that Albania geographically belongs to Europe, and socially, demographically and historically is closer to Asia. The spatial structure of Albania's economy is characterized by an increase in the share of the Center with a decrease in its economic efficiency, as well as the lag of the North from the South, due to the factor of economic and geographical position. The realization of the idea of "Great Albania", connected with the artificiality of the state borders defined in 1913, is extremely unprofitable for modern Albania in economic, social and demographic terms.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(2):19-34
Ice gouging topography on the Caspian and Aral seas bottom
Ogorodov S.A., Maznev S.V., Bukharitsin P.I.

Ice gouging is a destructive mechanical impact of ice on the underlying ground surface associated with ice cover dynamics, ice hummocking (ridging) and formation of grounded hummocks (stamukhas) under hydrometeorological factors and coastal topography. Ice scours in the Northern Caspian Sea were discovered in 1950s, but ice gouging processes were taken into consideration only in 2012, when the accident on Kashagan gas field (Kazakhstan) occurred. Recently we found ice scours on the dried bottom of the Aral Sea. Ice gouging microrelief on the Caspian seabed was researched using specialized geophysical equipment — side-scan sonar and multibeam sounding. We have a unique opportunity to study ice scours on the Aral Sea dried bottom by direct methods, but now they are observed only by remote sensing technologies. When sea level is not stable the most intensive gouging takes place on the depths from 2 to 5 m. Ice scours are widespread on the Caspian and Aral seabed because their level was significantly changing during XX century. Climatic changes and anthropogenic influence can cause changes in conditions of ice scour formation. Studying of the ice scours parameters on the Aral Sea dried bottom has a great economic and fundamental importance for comprehension of ice gouging conditions and intensity in shallow freezing seas and big lakes.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(2):35-50
Physical modelling of the destruction of reservoir ground dam in consequence of the overflow of water body
Pryakhina G.V., Boronina A.S., Popov S.V., Rasputina V.A., Voinarovskii A.E.

The destruction of ground dams, of natural and artificial origin, is caused by certain critical conditions. The main reasons for this are the overflow of water over the crest of a dam, the filtration of water through its body, or mechanical destruction. The processes of destruction of ground dams of moraine lakes are very frequent phenomena for mountain regions and can often occur there. In addition, the outburst of ground dams can take place under the thickness of the cover and mountain glaciers that leads to the formation of the subglacial hydrographic drainage system. Because of the dam destruction, outburst floods, which are accompanied by significant destruction and even human losses, are formed. Considering that, it is extremely difficult and unsafe to investigate the outburst process directly at the time of its natural occurrence, the researchers turn to alternative methods, like physical modeling. In this paper, the results of physical modeling of the outburst of the moraine model reservoir are presented. The experiment was carried out near the coastline of the outburst glacier lake Bashkara (Central Caucasus, Elbrus Region, Russia). Therefore, the artificial dam, consisting of material of moraines surrounding the lake, was created. This leads to a possibility to recreate the experimental conditions closest to natural. During the research photography and video filming of the outburst of the model reservoir were carried out. The results of physical modeling are in complete agreement with previously published data of outburst of ground dams and do not contradict with the physical essence of the process.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(2):51-63
Application of GPR sounding at the examination of fortification objects on Matua Island, Kuril Islands
Binyukov E.A., Edemskii D.E., Ivanov A.N., Padalka Y.V., Popov A.V., Prokopovich I.V.

Matua Island is of volcanic origin and was formed by Sarychev Peak volcano. The island is a place of a specific anthropogenic landscape. Its structure was substantially changed by fortification constructions and other military objects. Analogues of such a landscape weren't described in scientific literature, thus, perhaps, it may be considered unique for Russia and it merits more detailed and indepth review. Results of ground penetration radar (GPR) survey of soil-pyroclastic cover of the island's southeastern part are presented, which include also an investigation of certain subsurface military objects, the greater part of which is unexplored. It's established that existence of objects, various soil disturbances, downwrappings, anthropogenic or natural faults can be located by some radiophysical indicators — details of the reflected pulse, disturbance of pulse lineups, numerous phase shifts and repeated rereflections. It is shown that elaborated methods and increased power GPR with 50—250 MHz antennas to be applied can effectively solve these tasks on complex multilayer and moist volcanic soils.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(2):64-77
The governmental policy on forest beekeeping in the Russian Empire in the 18th—19th centuries
Loskutova M.V., Fedotova A.A.

Based on published and archival sources, the paper considers the transformations in Russian legislation and administrative policies on forest beekeeping (harvesting honey from owned or tended nests in forests) in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It demonstrates how in the course of the eighteenth century, the ownership of bee nests started violating the concept of absolute private property over forests, which was increasingly incompatible with the rights of other individuals to exploit natural resources on the same territory. From the early decades of the 19th century, borders were gradually demarcated between forested areas belonging to the state and private owners, and between the state forests and those designated for the use of state peasants. This process made possible to exercise the concept of absolute private property over forests in practice. These changes in legislation and the forest cadastre were closely linked to the making of ‘forestry science’ that developed in the late 18th century under the influence of a growing demand for timber needed for the navies and merchant fleets of all European states. The precepts of ‘forestry science’ were dictated by its objective to maximise profits by focusing on the production of commercially valuable sorts of timber. By the early 19th century, this logic prompted the forest administration of the Russian empire to start contemplating measures that would obstruct any alternative forms of forest exploitation, such as harvesting honey from tended trees. The paper considers in details the tightening of administrative regulations in this area, as imposed by the Ministry of State Domains that reached its peak in the Great Reforms era, and analyses the mechanisms that translated these general causes at work into specific policies.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(2):78-95

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