Vol 151, No 3 (2019)

The role of coastal agglomerations and cities in the innovation space of the European part of Russia
Mikhaylov А.S., Samusenko D.N., Mikhaylova А.А., Sorokin I.S.

The article presents a typology of seaside agglomerations and cities of the European part of Russia as generators of innovative processes. A number of typical features for 10 coastal agglomerations were considered and substantiated as the transformational elements of the innovation space, including — quantitative, qualitative, strategic management innovations, operational innovations and emulation policies. At present, urban agglomerations and cities in the European part of Russia are strategically important poles of national economic development, primarily due to the tourism, world economic, transport and logistics, trade and distribution, and industrial components. However, unlike similar agglomerations of foreign countries, for Russian agglomerations the role of these urban agglomerations as a transformational element of the innovation space is not fully obvious and understandable. On the basis of scoring, coastal cities and agglomerations of European Russia were divided into 4 groups: «cities — generators», «cities — beginner generators», «cities with the potential to generate innovative processes» and «cities with weak potential». It turned out that it is through strategic innovations (support institutions, technological environment, and agent-operators) that cities launch innovative processes. At the same time, not only the largest cities, but also individual regional centers, integrated into regional development programs and actively forcing the transition to the “smart city” platform, have great potential.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(3):1-17
Spatial features of changing ethnic self-identification of US residents of European origin
Zhitin D.V., Prokofiev A.D.

The article is devoted to the analysis of the location of the main ethnic groups of European origin in the United States. Being immigrants descendants, the US population has a different ethnic origin. To date, the majority of US residents are the descendants of European immigrants. On the example of the five most numerous ethnic groups of Americans of European origin — the British, Germans, Irish, French, Italians — the spatial changes of their distribution on the US territory in the period from 1980 to 2015 are considered. The ethnic assimilation processes of various ethnic groups in the American «melting pot» occur with different intensity. But the ethnic identity changing rate depends not only on a particular ethnic group membership, but also on the characteristics of its spatial localization. Among the five ethnic groups in question, over the past 35 years, the number of Americans of English and French origin has fallen most dramatically. The number of «Italians» over the same period has increased by more than 40 %. The appearance in 1990 in the US Census Bureau statistic data a new ethnic category — «Americans», which has a distinct spatial localization, has become an important indicator of the European ethnic groups assimilation process speed and direction in the United States.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(3):18-40
Landscape differentiation of environmental management systems in Afghanistan
Shashkov I.V.

The article is devoted to the analysis of the location of various forms of environmental management in Afghanistan. The main approaches to the classification of environmental management are considered, a version of the classification of environmental management in relation to the landscape conditions of Afghanistan is proposed, and a corresponding map has been drawn up. It was found that in the largest areas of the territory within the administrative borders of Afghanistan, dry farming (including cattle breeding), small oasis and oasis farming involving pasture cattle breeding with extremely low productivity is implemented, but their area is more than 70 % of the total area of the country. Highly productive agricultural use of nature is realized only under conditions of artificial irrigation, and occupies extremely small areas, which are also the most densely populated.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(3):41-54
Natural background and anthropogenic drivers of vegetation cover changes in pasture landscape: the case of Central Mongolia
Bogdanov Е.А., Klimanova О.А., Gunin P.D.

The article analyzes natural, first of all, geomorphological and lithological-edaphic conditions and anthropogenic (increase in livestock and change in the structure of the herd) factors determining the degradation of vegetation in the landscapes of the desert steppes of Mongolia. The sources for the assessment of vegetation cover were the images of Landsat 5 and 8 by which were calculated NDVI index, a joint index of the BSI + LDI and the synthesis of channels for 7—5—3 (Landsat 8) and 7—4—2 (Landsat 5). To assess the role of natural conditions in ArcMap package was built model of geotopes, containing data on the absolute height of the area, its position in the system of landscape levels, the genesis and the type of ground. The analysis of the contribution of anthropogenic factors is carried out on the basis of statistics on somons. It was revealed that in 1990—2015 the number of cattle varied from 1.1 to 2.8 million heads, and in all somons (districts) of Srednegobiisky aimag (region) the increase in the number was due to sheep and goats. It was found that a 47 % of the area of aimag has reduced vegetation cover, and to the greatest extent these processes are typical for different formations of the desert steppe subzone in the Northern and Central parts of aimag. Verification of the obtained results was carried out according to the data of field studies of the Russian-Mongolian complex biological expedition of RAS and AMS. Landscapes potentially susceptible to degradation occupy 60 % of the aimagʼs territory. Among the already transformed landscape sites eluvial and transeluvial geotopes of the socle plains on rocks of mixed composition prevail. It is shown that under similar trends of livestock changes pasture ecosystems of somons with predominance of such landscape sites are more prone to degradation than others.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(3):55-72
Economic-geographical study of Сhina in the domestic geographical literature
Aguirrechu A.A., Mironenko K.V.

The paper provides an overview of the economic and geographical studies of China carried out in our country. There are several stages of the formation and development of this area of China country studies. The origin of research dates back to the early 1930s, when China research was national interests of our country. The main period of study of this country by domestic economic geographers fell down in the 1950s — on the one hand, the period of the most favorable relations between the USSR and China, on the other — the period of the maximum flourishing of regional studies in our country. The cooling in political relations between the countries in the first half of the 1960s dramatically reduced the interest of economic geographers in Chinese studies, although Oriental studies in the field of humanities continued. Subsequent periods are associated with the resumption of economic and geographical research in China, but in much lesser amount, which is particularly due to the general reduction trend in regional studies.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(3):73-93
A. A. Chibilyov, A. A. Tishkov. 2018. The History of the Natural Reserve System of Russia. Moscow: Russian Geographical Society, Permanent Conservation Commission, 218 p. [in Russian]
Rozenberg G.S., Saksonov S.V.

The monograph of A. A. Chibilyov and A. A. Tishkov is a great gift for the 100th anniversary of the natural reserve system of Russia. The authors provide a chronology of the main events in the history of nature conservation in Russia (1895—2017). Particular attention is paid to the role of academic science. Compactness, informativeness and availability of presentation of materials about the history of our conservation business are fully worthy of this work being presented in the schools and higher educational institutions of the country.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(3):94-101
V. A. Snytko's Anniversary

In 2019 Valerian Snytko — corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, doctor of geographical Sciences, Professor, Honored scientist of the Russian Federation, Honorary member of the Russian geographic society celebrated his 80th birthday.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(3):102-103

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