No 4 (2018)

Articles

Diagnosis of electronic engine control systems for LADA automobile

Bazhenov Y.V., Kalenov V.P.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the development of a system for ensuring the efficiency of ECM through the introduction of diagnostics of its technical condition into the technological processes of servicing and repairing vehicles. In order to create such a system, we performed studies on the operational reliability of the structural elements of the ECU, the effect of their failures on the engine operating parameters, and the substantiation of diagnostic parameters evaluating the technical condition of the system. The object of the research is the electronic control system M86, installed on domestic LADA VESTA automobiles (VAZ-21179 engine). According to the results of the research, the average operating time of the structural elements of the ECM to failure and the reasons for their occurrence were established. Authors imitated the failure of each ECM elements by turning it off and using the appropriate equipment to measure selected parameters of engine operation. The most significant influence on the operation of the engine is caused by failure of fuel pump, ECU and crankshaft position sensor. The failure of this elements causes the complete loss of engine performance as fuel supply to the cylinders stops. In case of failure of other elements of ECM the engine performance is maintained, but its operating capabilities significantly decrease. To ensure the required level of reliability of the ECM, it is necessary at regular intervals to maintain the vehicles to diagnose the technical condition of its elements at automobile service enterprises. In this paper, it is recommended to split the ECM into three subsystems, each of which is evaluated by one complex diagnostic parameter reflecting the technical condition of the structural elements included there. The deviation of the parameters beyond the tolerance limits caused by the occurrence of faults serves as the basis for deciding whether to conduct the necessary technical actions. Diagnostics of the ECM subsystems is carried out in accordance with the developed algorithms that establish a rational sequence of control, adjustment and other operations to identify and eliminate damages arising in the process of operation. As an example, the article presents an algorithm for diagnosing the fuel supply subsystem and reducing the toxicity of exhaust gases. The developments proposed in the article were tested and introduced into the technological processes of maintenance and automobile repairs of the LADA dealership center in the city of Vladimir.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):2-9
pages 2-9 views

Calculation and experimental analysis of the V-belt variator motor

Balovnev N.P., Dmitrieva L.A.

Abstract

To change the speed of the executive bodies of many modern machines it is commonly used a variety of continuously variable drives, including, quite broadly, V-belt variators, which have a number of significant advantages. The main disadvantage of them is having not high durability of the variable-speed belt, caused, as a rule, not only by the qualities of the belt itself, but also by not perfect design of variator pressure devices. Therefore, improving the technical characteristics of modern V-belt variators is an important and urgent task. The article shows the need and ways to improve the V-belt variators for industrial use. The design of the upgraded motor variators and their pressure devices is analyzed. The main advantages of the improved pressure devices of the considered motor-variators are shown. The design flaws of the drive pulley adjustment mechanism are noted. To assess the capabilities of the upgraded motor-variators, a computational-experimental analysis of its prototype was carried out. The expected durability of the variator belt was found by calculation, which showed a significant reserve of the motor-variator in terms of load capacity. There was heat load experimentally determined of the V-belt and other elements of the variator under different loading conditions, including extreme loads. According to the results of the calculation and experimental analysis, it was found that the technical characteristics of the modernized variator do not reflect its actual capabilities. The variator motor is able to transmit high power without losing its efficiency. The upgraded variator motor can be used in the drives of stationary machines with different laws of change of the moment of resistance and transmitted power. However, it is necessary to carry out a constructive revision of the variator motor and its pressure devices in order to eliminate additional sources of heat generation and improve the working conditions of the variator belt.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):10-15
pages 10-15 views

The concept of the controlled movement of the tracked vehicle

Beketov S.A.

Abstract

This article is devoted to solving the actual problem - to define the concept of controlled movement of tracked vehicles. Uncertainty in the concept of controlled movement does not allow to solve practical problems related to the controllability of tracked vehicles. In the publication, controlled motion is considered as a transition from one steady state to another. Just a study of the steady-state motion regime will make it possible to determine the patterns between the force and kinematic parameters of controlled curvilinear motion and controlled parameters of a tracked vehicle. It is determined that controlled movement is such a movement in which the driver, acting on the controls, can change the mode of movement of the tracked vehicle in the right direction at the given time. If the movement of the tracked vehicle is carried out independently of the control actions of the driver or the reaction of the machine to the control action is uncertain, then such movement is uncontrollable. The analysis of transients from the rectilinear movement of the tracked vehicle to the curvilinear one is presented. It is shown that with curvilinear motion, the centrifugal force is balanced by the transverse reaction of the soil due to the displacement of the projection of the instantaneous center of rotation onto the longitudinal axis of the machine. The physical meaning of this bias is determined. During controlled curvilinear movement the center of mass of the tracked vehicle moves tangentially to the trajectory of movement, and the longitudinal axis will rotate around the center of mass by an additional angle relative to the tangent to the trajectory of movement in the direction of the instantaneous center of rotation. The indicator identifies a controlled, limitedly controlled and uncontrolled movement - the displacement of the instantaneous center of rotation on the longitudinal axis of the tracked vehicle to the level and beyond the front border of the supporting surfaces of the tracks. Thus, the conducted studies of the controlled curvilinear movement of tracked vehicles allow us to define the controllability and to identify the following types of movement: guaranteed controlled, limited controlled and uncontrolled movement.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):16-20
pages 16-20 views

Topology optimization in ROPS-safe design process of operator cabin for forestry, agricultural and construction machinery

Vdovin D.C.

Abstract

ROPS (roll over protective structure) and FOPS (falling objects protective structure) today are mandatory elements of every modern operator cabin for forestry, agricultural, construction and other machinery. This passive safety structures, integrated into cabin, can save life of the operator during rollover and heavy objects falling accident. Usually this structures consists of a supporting frame, capable of withstanding all the loads, which are occurring in machine accident. These elements, besides their main purpose, should satisfy additional requirements: not to cut operator visibility range, allow wide doorway for working and emergency doors and so on. Also initial design style solution restricts possible arrangement for load-bearing elements of the ROPS. Last decades in ROPS design process engineers extensively use explicit finite element technique to predict behavior and fitness of the ROPS structure by numerical simulation of rollover loads. This greatly reduce the costs of experiments, allowing to exclude dozens and hundreds of poor solutions at early stage of design without building expensive prototypes. However, uneven search of construction solution, even with support of numerical simulations, can be very time consuming. This work describes two-stage optimization technique, including topology and parametric optimization, which significantly reduce amount of structure variants, analyzed in ROPS design process. Therefore, optimization is an alternative to convenient way of inheritable and intuitive way of design. Topology optimization method with specially built finite element model of the forestry machine cabin used to find the most beneficial loadpaths for ROPS load bearing. Then, simplified shell-beam finite element model built, using results of topology optimization, and a parametric optimization technique used to find optimal cross-sections dimensions for main load-bearing elements of the protection structure. Finally, detailed shell model of the whole cabin elaborated and verified using standard explicit finite element simulations of all ROPS loadcases. Final simulations proved the strength of the designed ROPS structure and give confidence in successful experiment tests. The main advantages of the described two-stage optimization technique are significant reduction of considered variants due to exclude of inappropriate solution in advance, initial design style solution is not changed.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):21-29
pages 21-29 views

The calculation of the peristaltic pump characteristics taking into account the roughnesses on the internal surface of the working member

Grishin A.I.

Abstract

In the introduction of the work the short review of the literature, devoted to the miniature peristaltic pumps and also to the studies of the influence of the roughness in the microchannels with the laminar flow, is presented. The presented calculation procedure of the pump characteristics is based on the usage of the Bernoulli equation and the interpretation of the pump working member sections with the roughness as the local hydraulic resistances. The losses in these sections are expressed in the equivalent length which has been counted by performing the numerical experiments in the program STAR-CCM+. As have shown by the numerical experiments, the equivalent length of such sections is the function of a Reynolds number and the geometrical parameters of the roughness of the surface of the pump working member. For calculations the axisymmetric roughness with the profiles is in the form of the isosceles triangles and the rectangular triangles have been chosen. The calculation for the roughness in the form of rectangular triangles was performed in such a manner that when the fluid flows in the direction of the pressure pipeline it represented the repeating confusers and the sudden enlargements, and when flow takes place in the opposite direction - diffusors and sudden contractions. The numerical calculation has shown that in such case an energy loss with the flow in the opposite direction is bigger, but only with the certain geometrical parameters of the roughness. It was considered, that the roughness are only in the beginning and in the end of the pump working member (tube), and in the compression region the surface is smooth. As a calculations result the pump’s pressure characteristics for both tube without the sections with the roughness and the tube with these sections were constructed. The results gained with the offered technique have shown good enough coincidence to the results of the numerical experiments
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):30-40
pages 30-40 views

Calculated and experimental evaluation of the performance of the brake disc made of titanium alloy

Eremin V.P., Komarova M.G., Eremin G.P.

Abstract

The aim of the work is to reduce the unsprung weight of the wheel of a racing automobile due to the use of a disc made of titanium alloy in the brake mechanism. The object of the study is the brake disc of a vehicle of the Formula Student class. The subject of research is the use of titanium alloy in the design of the brake disc and its performance evaluation. As part of the work, an analysis of the thermal loading of the brake disc made of titanium alloy and the experimental verification of its performance were made. The calculations of thermal loading were carried out by the finite element method. To this end, a calculation method has been developed taking into account changes in the heat flux and convection coefficient during multiple braking. The paper presents the results obtained when carrying out calculations in accordance with this method. The numerical evaluation showed that the temperature arising in the brake mechanism does not exceed the permissible for the working capacity of the brake mechanism. The full-scale experiment showed that the calculated disk temperature, which occurs during braking, is close to the temperature established during the full-scale experiment. The error is not more than 13%. A full-scale experiment showed that the brake disc made of titanium alloy is not operational with the selected manufacturing technology. The conclusions were drawn on the applicability of the above method of thermal analysis of the brake disc, on the performance of the structure, and proposals were made for improving its efficiency.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):41-48
pages 41-48 views

Reducing the emission of solid particles from the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine by increasing the efficiency of the catalytic converter

Kukis V.S., Omel'chenko E.A.

Abstract

The subject of consideration in the article was the assessment of the possibility of reducing the emission of solid particles from the exhaust gases of reciprocating internal combustion engines, which is needed to intensify the activities to reduce their harmful effects on the environment and on the human body. The aim of the work was to assess the possibility of increasing the efficiency of reducing emissions of solid particles with diesel exhaust gases due to the possible stabilization of the temperature of their exhaust gases in front of the catalytic converter. The object of the study was the emissions of solid particles with exhaust gases of diesel engine 4ChN13/15. The experiments were carried out with a KND-Rila type catalytic converter. To reduce the temperature fluctuations of the exhaust gases entering it when the diesel engine is operating in various modes, the authors have created a shell-and-tube type heat exchanger with a heat storage substance - lithium hydroxide. A gravimetric method was used to determine the solids content. The test complex included the MT-120 dilution tunnel developed by the TUV-UVMV institute (Czech Republic), the sampling system on a loading test bench, the Mettler Toledo AX26DR weigher for filter weighing (in a climate chamber on a vibration-insulating foundation, with an accuracy of 2 μg) and filters - “Pall Flex”. The study was conducted when the diesel engine operates on test cycles for variable speed engines according to UNECE Regulation No. 96-02. The method of assessing the effect of stabilization of the exhaust gas temperature on the efficiency of the catalytic converter with respect to the emission of solid particles was to determine the average degree of conversion of solid particles in the neutralizer during the test cycle. The test results showed that the stabilization of the temperature of the exhaust gases in front of the catalytic converter provided a relative improvement in the degree of conversion of solid particles by 56.7%.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):49-54
pages 49-54 views

Limits of applicability of the standard method for estimating the torsional rigidity of spatial frames of buggy vehicle

Bazhenov E.E., Bujnachev S.K., Kustovskij A.N.

Abstract

The article provides an assessment of the limits of applicability of the standard methodology for estimating the torsional rigidity of spatial rod-bearing systems of automobiles. Torsional stiffness, as shown by numerous studies and practices, is one of the most important indicators of the carrying capacity of vehicle bodies (frames) of all types of vehicles - including such highly specialized ones as buggy. The authors show on the example of the bearing structure of an off-road vehicle of the “buggy” class that the general application approach to the assessment of the torsional rigidity of the bearing systems using torsion deflection stumbles upon limitations when it comes to spatial frames of complex construction. These restrictions are dictated by the difference in stiffness between design zones (zones should be understood as the floor area, the waist area and the roof area), which is reflected in the significantly different distribution of displacements in them. As a result, it becomes impossible to unequivocally give an opinion on the torsional rigidity of the frame using torsion deflection, since it is impossible to select a reference point in any of the zones (or the entire zone) to adequately describe the torsional rigidity of the whole structure (or a separate substructure). In this regard, the authors proposed the limits of applicability of the traditional method for estimating the torsional stiffness of a spatial core structure, and also proposed a method for overcoming these difficulties encountered when trying to assess the torsional stiffness of the supporting structure. The object of the research is a typical spatial frame of an all-terrain automobile of the D2 class buggy.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):55-60
pages 55-60 views

Concept design - creating the image of the future

Lepeshkin I.A.

Abstract

In this paper main tasks of industrial design (especially transportation design) were discussed and the importance of development not only of conventional designs for production, that are economically efficient, but also conceptual designs was shown. That concepts form the vision of the future, that we all are striving for, they can form trends and show new options and alternatives, that new technologies can open for us. For that, in this paper the new classifier of conceptual designs is shown, and the distinctive competences of concept-designer are high lightened. Classifier shows the difference between industrial design, concept design and concept-art. Concept design mostly located in the area around the border of scientific knowledge and that allows in the new designs to consider the high-end scientific researches and at the same time propose some new ideas and possibly the new vector for scientific research in different fields. Concept designer’s competencies for this activity include the ability to work with the future (futurology) and additional competencies in directing and script writing for decent visual storytelling and future world’s value transfer.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):61-67
pages 61-67 views

Power plants of motor transport: development prospects

Fomin V.M., Gusarov V.V.

Abstract

The analysis of the promising direction of development of energy installations of land transport is conducted. To date, in view of the emerging problems of depletion of oil resources and environmental safety in transport, in some popular science publications and in the media, the idea of the upcoming transition of motor vehicles to electric traction is actively awakening. However, in the opinion of the overwhelming majority of authoritative specialists in the automotive industry, this idea is premature and does not have a serious scientific substantiation. Currently, there is a large investigated potential of replacing oil with alternative energy products, the resource base of which, in some cases, significantly exceeds the traditional raw material base of oil fuels. Wide opportunities to solve the problem associated with the predicted depletion of oil resources are enclosed in the use of natural gases (primarily methane) and vegetable (biological) raw materials for the production of motor fuel. The development of alternative energy is universally considered one of the promising ways to solve the problems of energy supply, both in the field of constantly growing energy consumption in general, and in the direction of the future development of the energy balance of the transport complex. Thus, it is possible to assert with confidence that the domestic automobile transport is guaranteed to be provided with motor fuel for many decades. In addition, the current opinion about the high energy and environmental efficiency of electric motor transport is, in its essence, not unambiguous and for a number of indicators the electric vehicle is significantly inferior to a vehicle with a traditional internal combustion engine. In this article, on the basis of a reasoned analysis involving the opinions of a large number of authoritative specialists in the global automotive industry, this statement is proved.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):68-76
pages 68-76 views

The way to improve the efficiency of the neutralization system of nitrogen oxides of diesel internal combustion engines and its efficiency

Shabanov A.V., Solomin V.A., Shabanov A.A.

Abstract

The article analyzes the work of the neutralization systems of nitrogen oxides used on modern trucks with diesel ICE. It is stated that the modern development of technologies for electronic fuel injection and catalytic neutralization of combustion products provides an opportunity to implement the processes of neutralization of nitrogen oxides with an efficiency up to 90%. The most effective method to reduce the exhaust emissions of diesel engines is to purify exhaust gases in the car exhaust system using the SCR-NH3 method. A significant drawback of this system is the presence of a toxic substance ammonia regulated by Regulation No. 49-06. Regulation No. 49-06 provides for the control in operation of emissions of nitrogen oxides by the on-board diagnostics system by introducing emission limit values, but monitoring of ammonia emissions in operation is not provided. It is noted that the state sanitary standards of the Russian Federation and the environmental monitoring service, prescribe in regulatory documents the control of the limit of emissions of harmful substances of ammonia and nitrogen oxides with MPCss 0.04 mg / m3. Thus, an identical approach to limiting these emissions is provided. In order for the purification system to function effectively with ammonia and to support the neutralization reaction, it is necessary to adjust the purification system and maintain the optimum temperature range of operation. It is noted that to ensure a high activity of reduction reactions, it is necessary to adjust the cleaning system and maintain the optimum temperature range of operation, the temperature is about 350-550 ° C. In this regard, the possibility of refining the neutralization system by the injection of urea into the cylinder of an internal combustion engine at the expansion stroke to neutralize nitrogen oxides and reduce ammonia emissions, as well as to increase the efficiency of a diesel engine, using the heat of exhaust gases by creating high pressure in the working cylinder work and boost pressure. When dosing urea solution having a high heat capacity through the nozzle and the subsequent process of expansion of exhaust gases, the temperature value in the cylinder of the internal combustion engine reaches the required value for the reduction reaction. High temperature, ensuring the removal of the reaction products, contributes to the high efficiency of maintaining the process of neutralization of NOx. Intra-cylinder cooling of the engine with urea-injected water solves the problem of thermal stress of the parts of the cylinder-piston group of a highly forced internal combustion engine without a significant increase in heat loss of the internal combustion engine.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):77-84
pages 77-84 views

Ways to improve diesel engine fuel systems

Strel'cov R.V., Berdnikov A.A., Vasil'ev V.G., Dyunov V.A., Mel'nikov E.I., Ladanov V.I.

Abstract

The article discusses issues related to the purpose of supplying fuel to diesel engines, presents the requirements for this system. An analysis of ways to improve the fuel systems of diesel engines is done. The principle of operation of the high-pressure fuel pump is described, which provides accurate dosing of fuel in accordance with the engine operation mode and delivers it at a set time to the injector with a given intensity. Special devices for turbulence of the fuel in the combustion chamber, film mixing, pressurization and others make a great variety of requirements for the distribution of fuel in time and environment. Meeting these requirements is a complex and time-consuming task, one of such devices is the nozzle. The nozzle directly atomizes the fuel in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine under the influence of a pressure pulse generated by a high-pressure fuel pump. It is possible to fulfill the changing requirements for the injection characteristics if the design of the fuel system is changed accordingly. First of all, it is necessary to lose the essential shortcomings inherent in modern fuel systems, namely: some inconsistencies of the principle of operation of individual elements of the fuel system with the flow conditions of the diesel engine process; poor distribution of fuel over time; initial conditions instability. The article presents a developed device for shutting off the fuel supply to the nozzle, providing the possibility of diverting fuel that has not entered the engine cylinder as a result of leakage between the parts of the nozzle and disabling fuel supply to the nozzle when the engine cylinder is turned off to improve the quality characteristics of the diesel engine fuel system.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):85-91
pages 85-91 views

Problems of finding the best solutions to ensure the passive safety of the cabins of trucks at a minimum weight

Goncharov R.B., Zuzov V.N.

Abstract

This paper considered the main problems of finding the optimal parameters of a truck cabin based on parametric and topological optimization in order to meet the requirements for passive safety according to international rules and obtain its minimum mass. The article presents the developed rational finite element models (FEM) of the cabin and the pendulum for optimization problems, allowing to obtain results with acceptable accuracy and minimal solution time when using the LS-OPT and LS-TaSC programs with the LS-DYNA solver. Steel lining and foam aluminum filler are used as cabin reinforcement elements. To solve the problem and more fully assess the effect of the parameters, several options for cabin refinement were considered. Topological optimization was carried out with the aim of obtaining a picture of the best distribution of the filler along the cabin frame. Parametric optimization was carried out by selection of the properties of the filler (aluminum foam) and the thickness of the structural elements of the cabin. In addition to optimization, the sensitivity of the design to the variation of variable parameters was investigated in order to identify the degree of influence on the optimization result. Since the duration of the solution is very high (up to several days on available computers), an approach was developed based on the studies that were carried out, which at various stages reduced the number of variables and, thus, reduced the solution time. As a result, it was ensured that the requirements for passive safety were satisfied (these requirements were not met before optimization) with optimal mass distribution as a result of the combined use of linings and filler. The increase in cabin weight was 20%. The use of linings only allowed to meet the rules for passive safety, but gave an even greater increase in the weight of the cabin.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2018;(4):92-102
pages 92-102 views

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