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The article presents the results of the study for dosage forms with flowers of Tilia cordata available in the Russian Federationt.

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A provision of population with safe, efficient, qualitative, and accessible medicinal drugs is one of the most important problems of contemporary healthcare system. Nowadays, Russian pharmaceutical market sees a significant increase in supply of plant origin drugs, which in its turn requires an intensification of the original plant raw materials control, as well as the range of dosage forms production using these materials [2]. The role of different phyto-compositions in medicinal drugs is hard to overestimate. The plants which have been known for a long time are of special interest because they are under revaluation of their significance and demand. The popularity of plant origin drugs present days proves the reasonability of antiinflammatory medicinal drugs on the basis of phyto-compositions. Syrups are the most popular dosage form today. Herbal drugs are notable for such positive properties as the presence of biologically active substances complexes. They are broadly used while complex treatment of different diseases because of low toxicity, softness, and subtlety of their action, possibility of their longer use, and their application without side effects risks. Components of the phyto-compositions, which have certain pharmacological spectrum, potentiate the action of each other, without provoking side effects [9]. Flowers of Tilia cordata are one of these objects. Tilia cordata is widespread in Europe and West Asia. Its range covers the area from Southern Britain and Central Scandinavia on the West to the European Russia, Caucasus, Bulgaria, Spain, and Italy. The Northern border of the range reaches the 66th parallel in Norway. In Russia, Tilia cordata grows in forest-steppe and forest zones of CIS (European regions up to 62-63° north latitude), West Siberia (on the East up to Irtysh river), Western Europe without far north (up to 63° north latitude) and South, Crimea, Southern Ural, and Caucasus [6, 17]. Contemporary medicine limits the use of flowers of Tilia cordata to infusions, and teas, but there have not been any official dosage forms. But folk medicine uses the flowers of Tilia cordata as sedative, anticonvulsant, sudatory, febrifuge, analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent [3, 10]. In this connection the studies for the creation of optimal dosage forms based on phyto-compositions are grounded and timely. The studies of pharmacological activity of an extract from the leaves of Tilia cordata were carried out by V.E. Pogorelyi [7], the working out of drugs obtainment technology on the basis of dry extracts of the flowers and leaves of Tilia cordata was conducted by V.T. Bolotova in 2002 [1, 15, 16]. However, no study reflects a technology of obtainment of polyfractional extracts on the basis of the flowers of Tilia cordata. Therefore the purpose of this research was to study available official dosage forms of Tilia cordata on the pharmaceutical market. According to SP XI the medicinal raw material consists of inflorescences with a lanceoblong leave with flat top, about 6 cm long, with entire light-green edge. The raw materials smell is weak [4]. The gathering takes place only in dry weather during the whole bloom. The entire inflorescences are gathered together with a leaf. Small branches with inflorescences are cut, and then are separated from the inflorescences; leaves cankered by flea-beetle and covered with rust are deleted. The gathering period lasts 10-15 days [12, 14]. Tilia cordata is rich with biologically active substances. The flowers contain sugar, essential oil (0.05%) which has sesquiterpenic alcohol farnesol С15Н26О (the most important component of an essential oil); polysaccharides which include galactose, glucoses, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, and galacturonic acid; triterpene saponins; flavonoids, carotin, flavonic glycoside hesperidin С28Н34О15, glycoside tiliacin, tannins, ascorbic acid, carotin, wax, mucus, phytoncides, bitter substances, substances related to the rutin and retinol etc [11]. The studies for polysaccharide complex of Tilia cordata flowers were conducted by V.N. Dorogoychenkov in 1988 [5]. One of the most important advantages of Tilia cordata is its uniqueness by the content of nectar among Russian flora. Up to 17 mln flowers of Tilia cordata are calculated at one hectare of linden forest, with total nectar content more 1.5 tons [8, 13]. Medical value of Tilia cordata lay in the fact that since the dawn of time it has been successfully used by many nations as antiinflammatory, febrifuge, sudatory, diuretic, sedative, spasmolytic, analgesic, anastaltic, expectorant agent. The general analysis of the technological working outs showed an extremely limited introduction of industrially produced drugs into the wide medical practice. Flowers of Tilia cordata are released in pharmacies prepacked as raw materials for the production of extemporal extraction forms, infusions, decoctions. The application of these forms practically does not reflect the exploration degree of the Tilia cordata and does not consider the necessity for full and efficient use of these raw materials. Conclusions Widespread appreciation of the herbal medicinal drugs gives evidence about the necessity for the development of Tilia cordata drugs, including the use of polyfractional extraction.

About the authors

D. V Veselova



E. F Stepanova



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