Vol 5, No 4 (2017)



Kovalskaya G.N., Mikhalevich E.N.


The provision of patient-centered pharmaceutical care is carried out through pharmaceutical organizations and is accompanied by such necessary functions as counseling, provision of information on drugs, monitoring of drug therapy. It also includes ensuring quality, effective and safe drugs. In this case, the role of pharmacies is reduced to providing the population with ready-made products of industrial production. The problem of improving the technology of infusion solutions assigned in stationary conditions, including combined drugs of individual manufacture is especially acute.The aim of this work was to study and analyze the options for the extemporaneous manufacture of combined drugs for infusion introduction in hospital pharmacies.Materials and methods. The methodological basis of the study was a systemic approach, which makes it possible to identify the key elements of two different options for the extemporaneous manufacture of combined drugs for infusion administration. The research uses methods of logical and functional analyses.Results and discussion. The analysis of scientific sources on the issues of manufacturing of combined infusion solutions for the needs of stationary patients showed that manufacturing is carried out according to the traditional scheme for the Russian Federation, i.e. in the conditions of the procedural room of the department. In pharmacies of medical organizations, two variants of small-scale extemporal manufacture of combined infusion solutions are permissible using pharmaceutical substances and using sterile drugs of industrial production. The presence of a number of critical points of the first variant shows the irrationality and limitations of the use of such a scheme for the manufacture of combined infusion solutions in the pharmacy of a medical organization. The second version of the extemporal manufacture of combined infusion solutions is characterized by the simplicity of the technological scheme, the absence of complex calculations, a number of preparatory operations, filtration and sterilization steps, a simplified version of quality control, and the lack of complex equipment. This allows the rapid and large-scale production of various combinations of drugs for infusion.Conclusion. Manufacturing intravenous admixtures from commercial medicines allows the rapid and large production of various combinations of drugs for infusion introduction, does not contradict the current legislation, which makes it possible to consider it as the main variant of manufacturing of combined infusion solutions in hospital pharmacies.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(4):306-317
pages 306-317 views


Apushkin D.Y., Malkova T.L.


The proposed article touches upon the study of metabolism of new synthetic cannabinoids. In the work the data on synthetic cannabinoid 3-(Naftalin-1-yloxomethyl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole (THJ-2201), as well as the products of its metabolism in the laboratory rats of the Wistar line are given, i. e. Mass spectra and chromatograms of the native substance (THJ-2201) obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass-selective detection (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography with mass-selective detection (GC-MS) are given. The paper presents a complex technique for qualitative determination of cannabimimetics THJ-2201 and methods for obtaining a metabolic profile model for the test substance that can be useful for the tasks of qualitative detection and detection of new psychoactive substances in biological objects for the purposes of forensic analysis.The aim of this work was to develop methods for determination of the test substance (THJ-2201) and its metabolites in the urine of laboratory animals, as well as the study of the metabolic characteristics of synthetic cannabinoids on the whole.Materials and methods. The following equipment was used for the experiment: a liquid chromatograph from the firm “Shimadzu LCMC-8050” in combination with a mass-selective detector. The detector type is a triple quadrupole with a double ionization source (chemical ionization at atmospheric pressure and electrospray). The separation of the substances occurred in a chromatographic column (the material is stainless steel, the characteristics are: 150 * 3.0 mm, Luna 3uC18 (2), 100A). The Sorbent is reversed-phase. The investigations were carried out on Agilent 7890A gas chromatograph with Agilent 5975C mass spectrometer and a 103 polar HP-5ms column of 28 m × 0.25 mm. The animals were mature male white laboratory rats of the Wistar line, aged 4–6 months, weighing 190-230 grams.Results and discussion. As a result of the studies, a comprehensive methodology for determining the synthetic cannabimimetics of THJ-2201 and its metabolites in the urine of laboratory animals was developed, chromatograms and mass spectra of the metabolic profile of animals were obtained by HPLC-MS and GC-MS methods, and the similarity of the metabolic profiles of the studied substances in humans and animals was determined.Conclusion. The conclusions were made about the suitability of the proposed complex analysis methodology under the given laboratory conditions and the significant degree of interspecific similarity of human metabolic profiles and laboratory rats’ for substances chemically close to the studied.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(4):318-330
pages 318-330 views


Bulgakova E.A., Karpenko Y.N., Yarygina T.I.


It is known that almost any disease of the central nervous system is accompanied by the development of cognitive disorders. The drugs of choice in the complex therapy in this case are nootropics. On the world market racetam group, i.e. derivatives of alpha-pyrrolidone, prevails among nootropics, and the derivatives have a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity. Currently, this group continues to expand. By the employees of Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy (PSPA), ruled by Professor V.L. Gein, a new biologically active compound, a 3-pyrrolin-2-one derivative KOH-1 was synthesized. This compound is at the preclinical research stage now.The aim of this work was the development of methods for determination of KOH-1 in urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the study of excretion KOH-1 from the organism of laboratory animals.Materials and methods. Studies on the development of methods were carried out by using a liquid chromatograph LC-20 Prominence (Shimadzu, Japan) with a diode-array detector. The validation was carried out in accordance with the requirements for bioanalytical methods, in terms of selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The study of excretion of KOH-1 was performed on white non-linear male rats weighing 300-400 g. The substance KOH-1 was administered once orally in a suspension of starch mucus at a dose of 100 mg/kg.Results and discussion. As a result of the research, the  method for determining the biologically active compound KOH-1 in urine has been developed. The validation showed its suitability for pharmacokinetic studies. The data on daily excretion of KOH-1 in urine after a single oral administration to rats were obtained.Conclusion. The developed conditions for the chromatographic determination of KOH-1 in urine can be used in pharmacokinetic studies, both at the preclinical and clinical stages of the study of a potential drug. The data on excretion of KOH-1 will allow to determine the ways of excretion of the preparation, and also to select a rational dosage, to identify possible contraindications to the use.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(4):331-343
pages 331-343 views


Polkovnikova Y.A., Glushko A.A., Mikhailovskaya I.Y., Karieva Y.S.


Nowadays microcapsules are widely spread in different industries. Microcapsules with vitamins, etheric and fatty oils are included into different cosmetics (creams, gels, serums). Microencapsulated probiotics are used in foods and fodder additives in veterinary. An important field of application of microencapsulation in pharmacy is the combination in the total dosage of drugs that are incompatible when mixed in free form.The aim of work is a comparative analysis of thermodynamic characteristics of vinpocetine release from the melt of beeswax and cacao butter 3:2 into water, solution of hydrochloric acid 0.01 M and ethanol.Materials and methods. For simulation of the process of vinpocetine release from the melt into different environments models component models of the studied systems were built and their atom charges were calculated by quantum-chemical method. Spatial models of the components were built in Hyper Chem 8.01. As an initial state for the thermodynamic characteristics of the calculation of vinpocetine release from the melt, a conformation of «melt-vinpocetine» system was used after thermodynamic equilibration by molecular dynamics simulation in Bioeurica program for 5 ns. For isolated systems a vibrational analysis was performed with the use of unrestricted Hartree-Fock method in STO-3G basis set in Orca 4.0 program.Results and discussion. Vinpocetine release from the melt of beeswax and cacao butter 3:2 into water with different pH values and to ethanol depends on its solubility in these environments, and also on solubility of the melt.Conclusion. The performed study of vinpocetine release from the melt of beeswax and cacao butter 3:2 by molecular dynamics simulation demonstrates the opportunity of vinpocetine release into water with pH=2 and into ethanol. The obtained results make it possible to assume a lower degree of vinpocetine release from the melt into ethanol compared with the solution of hydrochloric acid 0,01 M.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(4):344-367
pages 344-367 views


Miroshnichenko J.V., Kononov V.N., Rodionov E.O., Mustaev O.Z., Soldatov E.A., Chuvashev M.L., Klochkova I.V.


The experience of the medical evacuation activities in armed conflicts shows that the Arctic special medical and geographical conditions have expressed mainly negative impact on the methods of conducting military operations and medical care of the wounded and sick, including the Russian Federation Military Forces operational and combat units` medical logistics.The aim of the study was to identify the ways to improve the equipment of medical units of interspecific group of troops (forces) in the Russian Federation Arctic zone.Materials and methods. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research was the works of Russian scientists in the field of improving the order of rendering medical assistance and performing other medical measures in conditions of low ambient temperature. The study used such methods as retrospective; logical; structural and functional analyses and others.Results and discussion. In the course of the study special medical and geographic factors of the Arctic were identified, and their influence on the operational and combat units’ medical logistics was established. The measures to preserve the quality of medicines and medical products in the Arctic are considered, the order of their use is determined, and the requirements for their transportation are established. Prospective means of deploying medical units in the Arctic have been identified. The impact analysis results of the Russian Federation Arctic zone conditions on the need of Military Forces operational and combat units in medical property are given.Conclusion. Based on the results of the study, the most relevant areas for the development and improvement of the organization of Russian Federation Military Forces operational and combat units` medical logistics in the Arctic Zone have been established.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(4):368-379
pages 368-379 views


Adzhienko V.L., Kosinova N.N.


Management decisions, both at the enterprise level and at the industry level as a whole, is impossible without carrying out a strategic analysis, which is regarded as the performance of a corresponding management function that is perspective-oriented and has a high level of uncertainty. Strategic analysis involves researching the system of factors that determine the future state of the public-private partnership (PPP) in the development of health care. The strategic analysis of PPP in the healthcare sector as a complex study of positive and negative factors that may affect the efficiency of the development of the PPP institution in the development of the healthcare is under consideration in the article. A number of new components complementing the system of strategic analysis of PPPs in the healthcare were proposed, and generalizations and conclusions were made.The aim of the research is to study the impact of the strategic analysis of PPPs in the sphere of healthcare on the formation of strategic directions for increasing the efficiency of using the PPP institution in healthcare.Materials and methods. In the process of achieving the research goal, methods of strategic and integrated economic analysis were used.Results and discussion. In our strategic analysis of PPP in the healthcare, it was revealed that under the conditions of underfunding national economy, medical institutions based on PPPs are being established in order to modernize and improve the quality of public services. PPP is an effective mechanism for attracting long-term investments aimed at the development of the health sector. The results of our analysis of PPP in the sphere of Russian healthcare made it possible to reveal that at present there are more than 70 projects in the process of implementation, 61 projects are already under construction and operation. Within the framework of the PPP-implemented healthcare projects, it is planned to attract investments of 61 billion rubles, while the total amount of private investments in PPP projects reaches 57 billion rubles. This is the basis for the systematic use of PPP tools for modernizing the healthcare sector and improving the accessibility and quality of medical services.Conclusion. The advantages of the application of the PPP strategic analysis in the sphere of healthcare is the increased effectiveness of interaction between the state and private business as a special type of cooperation with a view to implementing long-term investment projects in the sphere of healthcare. One of the main functions of the PPP strategic analysis in the sphere of healthcare is working out measures to create conditions for the implementation of PPPs in the sphere of healthcare both at the federal and regional levels.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(4):380-400
pages 380-400 views

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