Vol 6, No 4 (2018)



Sannikova E.G., Popova O.I., Kompantseva E.V.


One of the most promising plants for expanding the range of medicines having astringent and anti-inflammatory effects are various species of willow, which have been used in folk medicine for a long time and now arewidely appliedin the composition of various biologically active additives to food both abroad and in Russia. Currently, in medical practice, white willow (Salix alba L.) is mainly used. Numerous species of willow that grow and are widely cultivated in the Russian Federation have not yet been widely used in medicine.The aim of the study is to summarize the literary data about the expansion habitat, the content of biologically active substances and the possibility of harvesting raw materials of willow triandra (Salix triandra L.) and its use in medicine and pharmacy.Materials and methods. The object of the study is willow triandra (S. triandra L.) widespread in the Russian Federation. The study was conducted using search and information and library databases (eLibrary, PubMed, CyberLeninka, ResearchGate).Results and discussion. Willow triandra (Salix triandra L.) is a perennial dioecious plant, belonging to the Salicaceae family (Willow), Amygdalinae section. The natural habitat of willow triandra is predominantly forest and forest-steppe zones of the European and Asian continents. Eastern Europe is the geographical center of the growth of willow triandra, where it occurs throughout the territory. In Russia, willow triandra occupies almost the whole of its European part, in the North extends as far as the Petrozavodsk-Vologda-Kirov line, and the North Caucasus, it can be found on the territory of Western and Central Siberia. This suggests the idea that plant resources of willow triandra are significant. The possibility of cultivation of willow triandra in various edaphic-phytocenotic conditions is noted, since it is most easily subjected to vegetative propagation. It has been pointed out that willow triandra, like other willow species, contains a rich complex of polyphenolic compounds, which causes its anti-inflammatory effect. It has been revealed that in efficiency, the branches are not inferior to the bark of the species under study, which makes it possible to use branches of various willow speciesas a medicinal plant material.Conclusion. The prospect of research of branches of various willow species, including willow triandra, as a medicinal plant raw material showing anti-inflammatory properties, is confirmed.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2018;6(4):318-339
pages 318-339 views


Boyko N.N., Pisarev D.I., Zhilyakova E.T., Novikov O.O.


This article presents results of the study and modeling of solvent influence on isosalipurposide extraction from Helichrysi Arenarii flowers.The aim of this work is to study the influence of the solvent on isosalipurposide extraction from Helichrysi arenarii flowers and suggest a theoretical model for description of the results obtained.Materials and methods. The basic materials were: a ground plant raw material of Helichrysi arenarii flowers. water solutions of ethanol (26, 43, 59, 72, 81, 97±1% v/v.), methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, acetone and ethyl acetate. The extracts were obtained from the plant raw materials / solvent at the ratio of 1:5 (wt./vol.) by maceration for 24 hours at the temperature of 24±1°С. The analysis of the extracts was carried out by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and isosalipurposide reference substance.Results and discussion. A dependence of isosalipurposide concentration in ethanol-water extracts on ethanol concentration in the solution was studied. It has been found out that maximum concentration of isosalipurposide is observed in the solutions with ethanol concentration of 75±5% v/v. This range of ethanol concentrations corresponds to solvent’s dielectric constant value of 38±3 units. The regression equation of dependence between isosalipurposide concentration in the extract and dielectric constant of ethanol-water solution has been obtained. Optimal concentration of the solvent has been theoretically predicted and experimentally verified as in the case of   water solutions of methanol, acetone, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol.Conclusion. It has been determined that solvent’s dielectric constant has the most significant influence on the extraction process of phytocompound from the plant raw material. A mathematical model for description of the dependence of isosalipurposide concentration on dielectric constant of ethanol-water solutions has been substantiated theoretically and tested. The optimal range of solvent’s dielectric constant to obtain maximum concentration of isosalipurposide in the extract has been found.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2018;6(4):340-350
pages 340-350 views


Butenko L.I., Kuleshova S.A., Podgornaya J.V., Myikots L.P., Dmitriev A.B.


Introduction. Nowadays, it is vitally important to develop a method for quantifying melittin not only in apitoxin samples, but also in the products of its processing.The aim of our study is to investigate physical and chemical characteristics of melittin, the main component of apitoxin, as well as the development of methods for the quantitative determination of melittin in the samples of apitoxin and in the pharmaceutical products derived from apitoxin: “Sophia with apitoxin” cream and “Apizartron” ointment.Materials and methods. The objects of the research were apitoxin and melittin, as well as the samples of “Sophia with apitoxin” cream and “Apizartron” ointment satisfying the requirements of regulatory documentation, produced in lots by domestic and foreign manufacturers. The UV spectra of melittin and apitoxin were registered on SF 103 spectrophotometer in quartz cuvettes with 1 cm thickness. The IR spectra were investigated on the IR-instrument of Fourier – FSM-1201 spectrophotometer, LLC “Infraspek”. The determination of melittin purity was carried out by chromatography.Results and discussion. The basic physical and chemical characteristics were established for melittin as a reference sample and the main component of apitoxin. The melting temperature was: (Tmelt.)=190ºС. In the UV-spectrum there could be watched the absorption maxima corresponding to 2 peaks: λ max = 225±2 nm and 285±2 nm were observed. As an analytical wavelength, it is necessary to choose the peak λ =285 nm, since the peak with λ =225 nm is associated with the absorption of light by the internal (shielded) benzene ring of the tryptophan molecule. The nature of the curve and the position of the maxima of the spectra of melittin and the apitoxin solution coincide, which makes it possible to use melittin as a standard for spectrometric quantitative determination of the active substances in apitoxin and preparations based on apitoxin.Conclusion. The worked out spectrophotometric methods for the quantitative determination of melittin in apitoxin has been validated by the indices of specificity, accuracy, detection limit, quantitative determination limit, linearity.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2018;6(4):351-366
pages 351-366 views


Chernikov M.V., Oganova M.A., Gerasimenko A.S., Artemyev E.A.


The search for new drugs providing effective and safe therapy of acid-dependent diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, continues to be an actual problem of modern pharmacotherapy. One of the most significant pathogenetic mechanisms of these diseases is associated with Helicobacter pylori damage to the gastric mucosa.The aim of this study is the experimental investigation of the antiulcer effect of 2-phenyl-9-diethylaminoethylamine [1,2-a] benzimidazole substance (hereinafter a Benzimidazole derivative substance) on the model of Helicobacter pylori-like gastric mucosal injury in combination with immobilization stress (a restraint).Materials and methods. For modeling a mucous membrane damage to experimental animals (white Wistar male rats), they were injected 120 mmol/l ammonia solution after a 24-hour immobilization stress (restraint). As reference drugs, the following officinal anti-ulcer drugs widely used in clinical practice, had been chosen: Rranitidine (30 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg) and Omeprazole (3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg). The study substance was used in the doses of 30 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg. The maximum doses of the reference drugs were calculated on the basis of maximum daily doses for humans, taking into consideration the interspecies conversion factor. The maximum dose of the substance under study was selected experimentally. The logarithmic dose range was used for the convenience of further calculations of the ED50 value. All the studied objects were introduced intragastrically through a non-traumatic tube.Results and discussion. It has been established that the studied substance significantly reduced the area of mucosal damage relative to the control values in modeling Helicobacter pylori-like gastric mucosal injury provoked by the administration of ammonia solution against the background of gastric mucosal ischemia after a 24-hour restraint. At the same time, the inhibition of ulceration reached 78%, while in the groups receiving Ranitidine and Omeprazole, it reached 66% and 50%, respectively. The calculated ED50 values were the following: for the substance under study – 16.03 mg/kg, and for Ranitidine – 15.99 mg/kg.Conclusion. The gained results indicate that the studied Benzimidazole derivative is superior to analogs in its ability to suppress gastric mucosal ulceration provoked by Helicobacter pylori-like gastric mucosal injury, which confirms the relevance of further study of anti-ulcer activity and the development of the pharmaceutical dosage form based on it.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2018;6(4):367-379
pages 367-379 views


Golovanenko A.L., Tretyakova E.V., Patlusova E.S., Alekseeva I.V., Berezina E.S., Pershina R.G.


One of the most promising areas of dental caries prophylaxis is remineralizing therapy aimed at normalizing the mineral composition of tooth enamel. As a result of a set of scientific, experimental and clinical studies, gels and drug films for the treatment of enamel caries have been developed.The aim of this work is to study remineralizing activity of dosage forms for the treatment of initial enamel caries.Materials and methods. As active pharmaceutical substances in dosage forms, calcium chloride (FS 42-0006-5675-04 P.003964.01), potassium phosphate disubstituted (FS 42-1297-79), sodium fluoride (PS.2.2.0013.15), auxiliary substances – gelling agent sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (sodium-CMC) C75 (TU 6-55-39-90), plasticizer glycerin (PS.2.2.0006.15), purified water (PS.2.2.0020.15) – have been used. Remineralizing activity was studied by the method of determination of calcium and phosphorus in the enamel ash in vitro. The study of remineralizing activity was carried out by the method of determination of calcium and phosphorus in the enamel ash in vitro. Quantitative determination of calcium was carried out by reverse complexometric titration, and the one of phosphorus was carried out by photoelectrocolorimetry. The electro-metric study of the enamel electrical conductivity was also carried out in vivo with the help of the Dentest device (Geosoft).Results and discussion. The method of determination of calcium and phosphorus in the enamel ash in vitro is based on tooth ashing and the subsequent determination of calcium and phosphorus in it by chemical and instrumental methods. Basing on the results obtained, it has been established that gel and drug films used for enamel caries treatment significantly increase the content of calcium and phosphorus in tooth enamel. The conducted electrometric study confirmed the increase in the hardness of the enamel structure due to its remineralization after the use of drug films.Conclusion. As a result of the studies conducted in vivo and in vitro, it has been established that the developed dosage forms have a remineralizing effect and can be recommended for increasing the effectiveness of prevention and treatment of the initial enamel caries.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2018;6(4):380-388
pages 380-388 views


Voronov F.D., Ruzhinskaya I.N.


Introduction. This study deals with the problem of similarity of the principles and approaches of drug technologies in the medieval manuscript “Antidotarium Nicolai” by Nicholas of Salerno with modern pharmaceutical technologies.The aim of study is a textual investigation of “Antidotarium Nicolai”, a detailed research of the content of the manuscript, recipes and technologies for making medicines.Materials and methods. In order to achieve this goal, eighty-five recipes of “Antidotarium Nicolai” have been identified, systematized and analyzed in a documentary translation from medieval French. An interdisciplinary study of the content of the manuscript was carried out with the help of factor analysis of the historical source and modern scientific literature.Results and discussion. Having described the content and aspects of the prescriptions of “Antidotarium Nicolai”, the authors note the similarity of the technologies of drugs and galenical preparations with modern pharmaceutical technology, in particular, with the technology of pharmacy production. In “Antidotarium Nicolai” it is stated that preparations based on herbal medicinal raw materials may be second-line therapy agents for completing treatment after the application of basic pharmacological preparations.Conclusion. The results of this work reveal the potential for the use of herbal medicines in the conditions of modern evidence-based medicine, in particular, in the organization of long-term treatment and secondary prevention of chronic diseases in patients who need to maintain their ability to work, and provide them with a sufficiently high level of quality of life. A detailed translation of the full text of the manuscript, the analysis of its content in accordance with the requirements of rational pharmacotherapy and phytotherapy, further favors to identify the prospects for the development of new drugs, multi-component in their chemical composition with a wide range of therapeutic effects.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2018;6(4):389-397
pages 389-397 views

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