Pathophysiological and age-specific mechanisms of morpho-functional changes in spermatozoa in infertility

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Abstract


The aim of the review is to analyze the causes and pathophysiological mechanisms of sperm alteration accompanying the development of male infertility, the sequence of the development of their dysfunctions in individuals of different ages. Male infertility is a worldwide problem; up to 20% of married couples are childless. In the Russian Federation, the problem is even more acute, which complicates the unfavorable demographic situation. Based on the generalization of the results of various screening studies, from 30 to 50% of men in the Russian Federation have impaired fertility. The review examines the main classifications and pathophysiological mechanisms of the development of male infertility. An extended assessment of changes in the morphology and functional properties of spermatozoa, relevant for the practice of in vitro fertilization, was carried out. The mechanisms of damage to spermatozoa and the sequence of development of degenerative changes in the cell are considered in detail. The mechanisms of sperm dysfunction development in men of different ages are compared. The conclusion is made about the need for further studies of the molecular mechanisms of fertility, deciphering the entire set of interactions between molecules and cells involved in the implementation of the reproduction function.


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About the authors

Anna A. Dotsenko

Institute of Experimental Medicine

Email: annadotsenkoem@gmail.com

Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg

Department of Immunology. Institute of Experimental Medicine; Head of the Clinical Embryology Laboratory, Department of Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Alexander V. Polevshchikov

Institute of Experimental Medicine

Author for correspondence.
Email: ALEXPOL512@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3342-178X
SPIN-code: 9627-6694

Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg

PhD, D.Sci.Biol., Professor, Head of the Department of Immunology

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