Medical academic journal

The journal “Meditsinskiy Akademicheskiy Zhurnal” published since 2001 is an official journal of the Northwest Branch of the Russian Academy Sciences. Its initiator and Editor-in-Chief in 2001-2009 was Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Boris Ivanovich Tkachenko whose contribution to the development of the journal is invaluable. The first Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the journal was Academician of RAMS V.A. Nagornev, and its Executive Secretary was Corresponding Member of RAMS N.S. Sapronov.

In September 2009, the position of Editor-in-Chief was taken by Corresponding Member of RAMS I.P. Dudanov, of Deputy Editor-in Chief, by Corresponding Member of RAMS N.S. Sapronov, and of Executive Secretary, by Prof. P.D. Shabanov.

The high publication level and wide appreciation by specialists in the course of formation and development of the journal were ensured by outstanding contributors, including Academicians E.K. Ailamazyan, N.A. Belyakov, Yu.D. Ignatov, Yu.V. Lobzin, V.I. Mazurov, N.A. Maystrenko, and A.A. Totolyan, and Corresponding Members of RAS I.A. Yeriukhin, S.A. Ketlinskiy, M.M. Odinak, Ye.A. Selivanov, and S.A. Simbirtsev.

Since 2010 up to the present time, Editor-in-Chief of the journal is Academician G.A. Sofronov. Since 2012, its Deputy Editor-in-Chief is Academician N.A. Belyakov, and its Executive Secretary is A.B. Dmitriyev PhD. The Editorial and Advisory Boards of the journal include prominent scientists representing the Northwest of Russia and distinguished scientific schools of Saint Petersburg.

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Vol 21, No 1 (2021)

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Basic studies
The role of cytomegalovirus and interleukin-8 in destabilization of atherosclerotic lesions in humans
Maltseva S.V., Pigarevsky P.V., Davydova N.G., Snegova V.A.
Abstract

Relevance. Currently, the role of persistent infections in the atherogenesis development mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, it’s important to analyze the role of viral infection against the background of the pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization.

The aim of the work was a comparative immunohistochemical study of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and IL-8 in different types of human atherosclerotic lesions during their destabilization.

Materials and methods. The study was carried out on 130 autopsy samples of human aorta. CMV was detected by direct immunofluorescent antibody staining. IL-8 was detected by two-stage streptavidin-biotin antibody staining.

Results. It has been shown that active detection of both CMV and IL-8 is characteristic of atherogenesis foci of the arterial intima with the most intense immune-inflammatory changes. The obtained results indicate the synergism of the cellular response to CMV and IL-8 in the vascular wall during the destabilization atherosclerotic lesions process.

Conclusion. According to the results of the work, it can be concluded that both the presence of CMV in atherosclerotic lesions and the high production of IL-8 play a significant role in the formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaques in the vascular wall.

Medical academic journal. 2021;21(1):11-17
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Features of the Development and Application of Diagnostic ELISA Systems for the Detection of Antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Clinical Practice
Zagoruyko E.I., Kudlay D.A., Lysenko M.A., Fomina D.S., Vinogradov I.V., Bogachev V.V., Starostenko A.A.
Abstract

Introduction. The new coronavirus infection, COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 has reached the scale of a pandemic. Detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is an aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19, and is also used to assess the immune response to the infection. Since COVID-19 is a new disease, seroconversions and kinetics of antibody to SARS-CoV-2 are not well understood.

The aim of the study is to evaluate seroconversions and kinetics of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 (IgA, IgM, IgG and total) in real clinical practice using test systems of national production.

Materials and methods. 327 blood samples obtained from patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 with active infection, convalescents and healthy donors were analyzed. Detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was carried out by enzyme immunoassay method using registered test systems “Antigma-A”, “Antigma-G”, “Antigma-Screen” and an unregistered test system for the detection of class M immunoglobulins.

Results. When testing for total antibodies, 50.0% of samples were positive on days 1-7; 89.4% on days 8-14; 96.2% on days 15-45; and 93.3% after the 46th day after disease onset. The earliest seroconversions occurred on the 3rd day; antibodies were detected up to 81 days after the disease onset.

Conclusions. The frequency of detecting seroconversions when using test systems of the “Antigma” series in real clinical practice is comparable to the data published in the world scientific literature and is high enough to use these test systems in the COVID-19 diagnostics.

Medical academic journal. 2021;21(1):19-30
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Anti-cytokine effects of chalcon analogues in experimental "cytokine storm" in rats
Chernikov M.V., Pozdnyakov D.I., Rukovitsina V.M., Oganesyan E.T.
Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-cytokine effects of chalcon analogues in an experimental “cytokine storm”.

Materials and methods. The “cytokine storm” was modeled in rats by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide at a dose of 10 mg / kg. The test compounds and the reference drug dexamethasone were administered intraperitoneal 60 minutes after lipopolysaccharide injection at doses of 20 mg / kg and 3 mg / kg, respectively. After 24 hours, changes of the cytokines concentration in blood serum (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α), body temperature, and the severity of pulmonary edema were evaluated.

Results. In the study, it was found that the administration of all the test-compounds reduced symptoms of hypercytokinemia, reflected in the decrease in the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α with high content of IL-10 in serum. At the same time, the body temperature and pulmonary edema in rats against the background of the injection of the test chalcon analogues relative to animals that did not receive pharmacological support also decreased. Against the background of the administration of dexamethasone to animals, the concentration of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α decreased by 25.0% (p < 0.05); 44.1% (p < 0.05) and 33.3% (p < 0.05), as well as an increase in the content of IL-10 by 60.0% (p < 0.05), with a decrease in pulmonary edema and body temperature. It should be noted that there were no statistically significant differences between the groups of animals that were received the studied chalcon analogues and the reference drug.

Conclusion. The study showed the relevance of further study of representatives of a number of chalcon derivatives as non-hormonal means of correcting the “cytokine storm” with a high therapeutic potential.

Medical academic journal. 2021;21(1):31-38
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Mechanisms of the influence of adiponectin on apolipoproteins A-1 and B production by human hepatocytes
Tanyanskiy D.A., Dizhe E.B., Oleinikova G.N., Shavva V.S., Denisenko A.D.
Abstract

The aim of the study was to find out the mechanisms of the adiponectin effect on apolipoproteins (apo) A-1 and B production by human hepatocytes.

Materials and methods. The study was performed on the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The expression of the apoA-1 gene was evaluated at the mRNA level by quantitative PCR with reverse transcription, and the production of apo B – by ELISA method. The activity of lipogenesis was assessed by the inclusion of labeled 14C-acetate in triglycerides, as well as by mRNA expression of lipogenesis genes, and by the estimation of total triglycerides content in cells. To determine the involvement of signaling pathways, the RNA interference method was used.

Results. Knockdown of genes, coding the specific receptors, AMP-activated protein kinase, and its regulated transcription factors inhibited adiponectin-dependent stimulation of apoA-1 gene expression in hepatocytes. Adiponectin had no effect on lipogenesis and apo B production under basal conditions, but suppressed these processes induced by the addition of oleate.

Conclusion. Adiponectin stimulates the production of apo A-1 in hepatocytes by inducing the transcription of the apoA-1 gene and suppresses the secretion of apo B by affecting lipogenesis. These effects may underlie the effect of adiponectin on lipoproteins metabolism.

Medical academic journal. 2021;21(1):39-45
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Effects prenatal exposure to peat smoke on the emotional behavior of rat offspring and its correction with fabomotizole
Ivashova D.M., Litvinova S.A., Voronina T.A., Tsorin I.B.
Abstract

Relevance. Long-term smoke from forest fires cause a wide range of health disorders, including somatic state, emotional status, and cognitive functions. The question of the consequences of exposure to combustion products of peat and wood during pregnancy for offspring remains open.

Intention. The goal is to explore the disorders (anxiety, reflex behavior, aggression, etc.) that occur in the offspring of rats exposed to peat smoke in the early and late postnatal periods and the effect of fabomotizole on these disorders.

Methodology. The research was conducted on the offspring of rats of both sexes from females forcibly exposed to peat smoke (1-20 days). The effect of peat smoke on rats and the protective effect of fabomotizole (1 and 10 mg / kg / 20 days of gestation) were studied in the early (5 days) and late (60-80 days) postnatal periods. The formation of the sensory-motor reflex, anxiety, aggression, and motor activity were assessed.

Results and discussion. Exposure to peat smoke of pregnant females (from 1-20 days of gestation) causes a perturb in the formation of a sensory-motor reflex in the early postnatal period ( 5 days), a decrease in the level of natural adaptive reactions and intraspecific aggression, as well as an increase in locomotor activity in mature animals (60-80 days). Fabomotizole, when administered prenatally (1-20 days of gestation) at doses of 1 and 10 mg / kg, corrected the formation of a conditioned sensory-motor reflex in male and female rat pups, data of the emotional status and motor activity of sexually mature animals.

Conclusion. The protective effect of fabomotizole on the offspring of rats prenatally exposed to peat smoke from the toxic effects of peat combustion products was revealed. Fabomotizole returns the studied behavioral reactions, disturbed by peat, to the level of the physiological norm, which confirms the previously established cyto- and neuroprotective properties of the drug.

Medical academic journal. 2021;21(1):47-58
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SAS Enterprise Guide 6.1: baseline characteristics presentation
Bunenkov N.S., Komok V.V., Grudinin N.V., Bobylkov V.A., Bunenkova G.F., Grinenko O.A., Nemkov A.S.
Abstract

Objective: to develop algorithm of presentation of baseline characteristics of patients which enrolled in prospective non-randomized clinical trial AMIRI – CABG (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03050489).

Materials and methods. Data collection was performed according to prospective non-randomized clinical trial AMIRI — CABG in Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University, Saint Petersburg, Russia between 2016-2019 years with 336 patients. Patients were allocated into three groups of treatment. There is database with clinical, laboratory and instrumental data. Comparison for nominal data (gender and incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke) were calculated with SAS Enterprise Guide 6.1 software with Chi-squared test and exact Fisher test. Baseline characteristics were presented in table.

Results. There was developed algorithm of baseline characteristics presentation in APA-table.

Conclusion. There was developed algorithm of baseline characteristics presentation SAS Enterprise Guide 6.1 could be useful for manuscript preparing for Russian and foreign journal.

Medical academic journal. 2021;21(1):59-64
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Review
Mitral regurgitation followed by acute coronary syndrome
Dzeytova A.K., Bolgucheva M.B., Gagieva D.A., Bezieva K.A., Gazdieva L.O.
Abstract

Mitral regurgitation followed by acute coronary syndrome is a dangerous pathological condition which can to threat patient. Precise evaluating severity of mitral regurgitation followed by acute coronary syndrome could be difficult. Management of patients depends on severity of mitral regurgitation. Current review describes role of echocardiographic parameters in assessment of severity of mitral regurgitation.

Medical academic journal. 2021;21(1):65-74
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Scientific platform, development and implementation of effective immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis infection in the Russian Federation
Kudlay D.A.
Abstract

The review presents scientific information about modern approaches to immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis infection in the Russian Federation, which allows to control the spread of infection and prevent the development of the disease in individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The results of Russian and foreign studies have shown a low total sensitivity of the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, which indicates a low predictive value of the test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. The article presents the results of preclinical and clinical studies of a new diagnostic test for the detection of tuberculosis infection using Diaskintest. The results substantiate the purpose of Diaskintest for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection, assessment of the process activity; differential diagnosis of tuberculosis; differential diagnosis of post-vaccination and infectious immune response (delayed-type hypersensitivity); monitoring the effectiveness of treatment. The article presents the results information on the screening of tuberculosis infection in the Russian Federation using Diaskintest, its significance, efficacy, and safety. The results of scientific studies carried out in recent years to assess the effectiveness of immunodiagnostics in the Russian Federation give reason to believe that the introduction of a modern screening method for diagnosing tuberculosis infection using Diaskintest can significantly improve the quality of doctors’ work on the early detection of various manifestations of tuberculosis infection and significantly reduce the state’s material costs for combating with tuberculosis.

Medical academic journal. 2021;21(1):75-84
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The influence of lactoferrin on the epigenetic characteristics of mammalian cells of different types
Sharrouf K.A., Suchkova I.O.
Abstract

Despite the huge amount of accumulated data, the study of the main mechanisms of interaction between proteins and epigenetic mechanisms in health and various pathologies remains one of the most important problems of molecular biology. The search for various endogenous and exogenous factors affecting the epigenome of eukaryotes continues to be relevant. Lactoferrin is the second most abundant milk protein and has proven to be a very promising anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and anti-cancer agent. This protein can act as a transcription factor regulating the expression of some genes. However, little attention has been paid to the use of lactoferrin as an epigenetic modulating factor. This review demonstrates that lactoferrin can directly and/or indirectly influence epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin compaction, and microRNA pathways) in different types of cells, in particular cancer cells.

Medical academic journal. 2021;21(1):85-95
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