Medical academic journal

The journal “Meditsinskiy Akademicheskiy Zhurnal” published since 2001 is an official journal of the Northwest Branch of the Russian Academy Sciences. Its initiator and Editor-in-Chief in 2001-2009 was Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Boris Ivanovich Tkachenko whose contribution to the development of the journal is invaluable. The first Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the journal was Academician of RAMS V.A. Nagornev, and its Executive Secretary was Corresponding Member of RAMS N.S. Sapronov.

In September 2009, the position of Editor-in-Chief was taken by Corresponding Member of RAMS I.P. Dudanov, of Deputy Editor-in Chief, by Corresponding Member of RAMS N.S. Sapronov, and of Executive Secretary, by Prof. P.D. Shabanov.

The high publication level and wide appreciation by specialists in the course of formation and development of the journal were ensured by outstanding contributors, including Academicians E.K. Ailamazyan, N.A. Belyakov, Yu.D. Ignatov, Yu.V. Lobzin, V.I. Mazurov, N.A. Maystrenko, and A.A. Totolyan, and Corresponding Members of RAS I.A. Yeriukhin, S.A. Ketlinskiy, M.M. Odinak, Ye.A. Selivanov, and S.A. Simbirtsev.

Since 2010 up to the present time, Editor-in-Chief of the journal is Academician G.A. Sofronov. Since 2012, its Deputy Editor-in-Chief is Academician N.A. Belyakov, and its Executive Secretary is A.B. Dmitriyev PhD. The Editorial and Advisory Boards of the journal include prominent scientists representing the Northwest of Russia and distinguished scientific schools of Saint Petersburg.

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Current Issue

Vol 20, No 1 (2020)

Review
Neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders, mediated by the trace amines and their receptors
Apryatin S.A., Karpenko M.N., Muruzheva Z.M., Bolshakova M.V., Magazenkova D.N., Klimenko V.M.
Abstract

The aim of the study is the modern scientific literature estimation in the field of the investigation of neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders mediated by the trace amines and their receptors. The analysis of modern ideas about the “feedback” of neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases in which the trace amines and their receptors are involved was carried out. The important role of trace amines and their receptors in the regulation of the dopamine system, in connection with metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, ADHD, schizophrenia, obesity, metabolic syndrome and other pathological conditions, has been shown. Trace amines and their receptors have a direct effect on dopamine systems, being regulators of various metabolic and neurodegenerative processes, participating in energy metabolism, neurogenesis, and other vital processes.

Medical academic journal. 2020;20(1):9-22
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The role of endothelium in atherogenesis: dependence of atherosclerosis development on the properties of vessel endothelium
Parfenova N.S.
Abstract

This review discusses development of atherosclerosis as based on the evidence for its dependence on the properties of vessel endothelium. There is a detailed description of the mechanisms of atherogenesis, that were studied earlier, of the processes of endothelial transport, including caveola-dependent pathway and also the hemodynamic hypothesis of atherosclerosis development. The possibilities of the direct and receptor-mediated lipoprotein transcytosis through the endothelial barrier were discussed. A special attention was paid to the physiological function of autophagy responsible for the intracellular lipoprotein transport.

Medical academic journal. 2020;20(1):23-36
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Potential role of lactoferrin in early diagnostics and treatment of Parkinson disease
Sokolov A.V., Miliukhina I.V., Belsky Y.P., Belska N.V., Vasilyev V.B.
Abstract

Incidence of Parkinson disease progressively grows with increasing age and percentage of elderly people in the global population. Clear understanding of the causes of dopaminergic neurons’ death in Substantia nigra and Parkinson disease pathogenesis are currently absent, not speaking of an efficient therapy. However, an early diagnosis of dopaminergic neurons’ degeneration and prescription of dopamine replacement therapy significantly slow down the rate of symptoms’ progression. An increased concentration of iron in Substantia nigra of Parkinson disease patients has been shown in several studies. In this review we summarized the data concerning a potential significance of lactoferrin, the iron-binding protein of exocrine secretions and neutrophils, for early diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson disease. Salivary and lacrimal lactoferrin levels in Parkinson disease patients were higher than those observed in the control group. Plasma levels of lactoferrin inversely correlated with Parkinson disease severity even after treatment with Levodopa, a dopamine agonist, and with monoaminooxidase inhibitors. Lactoferrin levels in cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson disease patients negatively correlated with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration. Lactoferrin treatment of rodents with several experimental models of Parkinson disease (induced by rotenone, MPTP) protected neurons and mitigated the symptoms of neurodegeneration. Some contradictions about the positive effects of lactoferrin as a remedy in Parkinson disease animal models and possible participation of lactoferrin in accumulation of iron in neurons are discussed.

Medical academic journal. 2020;20(1):37-44
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Diagnostic capabilities of posturological methods in extrapyramidal disorders
Kudrevatykh A.V., Miliukhina I.V.
Abstract

The posture is the position of the body in space, the ultimate goal of which is to maintain balance in static and dynamic conditions. The balance of the body is due to a complex system of regulation. The field of knowledge that studies balance maintenance processes is posturology. For over 20 years, stabilometry as a method of diagnosing postural balance has been widely used in clinical practice. This method has found its application in patients with pathologies of central and peripheral nervous systems. In this review we present modern concepts of postural balance formation and mechanisms of postural balance maintenance, as well as diagnostic capabilities of stabilometry in patients with diseases of extrapyramidal system.

Medical academic journal. 2020;20(1):45-50
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Basic studies
SAS Enterprise Guide 6.1 for physicians: correlation analysis
Bunenkov N.S., Bunenkova G.F., Komok V.V., Grinenko O.A., Nemkov A.S.
Abstract

Objective: to develop algorithm of correlation analysis of prospective non-randomized clinical trial AMIRI–CABG (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03050489) data using SAS Enterprise Guide 6.1.

Materials and methods. Data collection was performed according prospective non-randomized clinical trial AMIRI–CABG (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03050489) in Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University, Saint Petersburg, Russia between 2016–2019 years with 336 patients. There is database with clinical, laboratory and instrumental data. Correlation analysis was performed with SAS Enterprise Guide 6.1.

Results. There was developed algorithm of correlation analysis data of prospective non-randomized clinical trial AMIRI–CABG (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03050489). This algorithm could be useful for physicians and researchers for data analysis.

Conclusion. Presented algorithm of correlation analysis could make easier and improve efficient data analysis with SAS Enterprise Guide 6.1.

Medical academic journal. 2020;20(1):51-56
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Influence of mesenchymal stem therapy on the behavior of the process of sam-rats with brain injury
Avaliani T.V., Fedotova O.R., Tsikunov S.G.
Abstract

Current research suggests the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of brain injuries. Intravenous administration of MSCs to adult rats with brain injury leads to the restoration of behavioral and neurological status and helps to normalize maternal behavior. In this work, it was shown that a single transplantation of syngeneic mesenchymal stem cells (5 mln) into the bloodstream of female rats with motor deficiency has a corrective effect on the behavior of their offspring: it prevents the development of violations of research and locomotor behavior in the Open Field test and reduces emotional disorders.

Medical academic journal. 2020;20(1):57-64
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Effect of the insulin on the apolipoprotein a-i gene expression in human macrophages
Nekrasova E.V., Danko K.V., Shavva V.S., Dizhe E.B., Oleinikova G.N., Orlov S.V.
Abstract

The aim of the article — to study the effect of insulin on apolipoprotein A-I gene expression level in human macrophages and to reveal the main signal cascades which take part in the insulin-mediated regulation of apolipoprotein A-I gene.

Materials and methods. The experiments were carried out on the macrophages differentiated from acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and on the macrophages differentiated from the monocytes isolated from peripheral human blood. The analysis of apoA-I gene expression was performed by RealTime RT-PCR (on the mRNA level) and by flow cytofluorometry. To study the signalling cascades which take part in the insulin-mediated regulation of apoA-I gene the inhibitory analysis was used.

Results. Insulin induces the human apoA-I gene transcription in macrophages, but decreases the level of the ApoA-I protein which binds to outer cytoplasmic membrane of macrophages. The insulin-mediated transcription of apoA-I gene depends on PI3K-AKT signal cascade and transcription factors NF-κB and LXRs.

Conclusions. Taking into account our previous data it is plausible to conclude that the elevation of ApoA-I mRNA in human macrophages after insulin treatment leads to an increase of the amplitude of macrophages anti-inflammatory response, which consists in a sharp rise in the level of surface ApoA-I in macrophages under the some proinflammatory stimuli (TNFα, LPS).

Medical academic journal. 2020;20(1):65-74
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Effect of intratumoral implantation of barium hexaferrite, magnetite, hematite, aluminium oxide and silica on the dynamics of Erlich tumor growth and survival value of tumor-carrying mice
Vershinina S.F., Evtushenko V.I.
Abstract

Introduction. We have earlier shown antitumoral effect of barium hexaferrite implant BHF for models of two intratumoral transplantable solid tumor of mice — LIO-1 and Erlich (2 sm3 tumors). In the mentioned work on the model of a rather big sized solid Erlich tumor (3 sm3) we have studied a comparative antitumoral effect after the implantation of BHF particles with a residual magnetic field of 150 mGsm referring to particles of iron oxides with residual magnetic field that was nearing to the zerohematite (Fe2O3) and magne — tite (Fe3O4), and as well as for the control — aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and silica (nSiO2 ∙ mH2O).

Material and methods. Trials have been conducted with 70 white mice — female mice with a mass of 23–24 g. Malignant epithelial tumor of Erlich was intramuscularly transplanted into the right hind extremity. When tumors reached a size of 3 sm3, mice were divided into 6 groups whom BHF, magnetite, hematite, aluminium oxide, silica or physiologic saline were implanted, correspondingly.

Results. As a result of the conducted studies it was found that BHF being implanted into a big-sized tumor (3 sm3) has a mild antitumoral effect for all the studies periods. Particles of iron oxides — magnetite and hematite — with a magnetic field nearing the zero did not possess the antitumor effect. By the end of experiment (29 days) in all groups including a control group, death of mice at 20 to 50 percent have been seen, and tumors were significantly necrotized, whereas in a group with implantation of silica into the tumor 100 percent of mice have survived and tumors itself did not have necrosis and had even pink colouring.

Medical academic journal. 2020;20(1):75-82
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Novel technologies
Comparison of flow cytometry-based apoptosis detection methods for measuring of human native and cryopreserved spermatozoids viability
Dotsenko A.A., Serebriakova M.K., Kudryavtsev I.V., Sukhachev A.N., Polevshchikov A.V.
Abstract

The aim of the study was to compare the ability of various media for cryopreservation of sperm to ensure their viability after thawing and to assess the possibility of using Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin to determine the viability of native and cryopreserved human sperm by flow cytometry.

Materials and methods. Used ejaculate 54 men aged 26 to 47 years, undergoing treatment for infertility. The control was a native ejaculate, which was also used for the in vitro fertilization procedure. Four parallel samples were frozen using various commercial media. After storage and thawing, spermatozoa viability was assessed by flow cytometry using three dyes and Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin.

Results. All assays showed that cryopreservation led to a twofold decrease of sperm viability, dye to the changes in the composition and properties of cell membrane, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as the damages of acrosomal complex and nucleus. The lowest decrease in sperm viability was shown for Quinn’s advantage sperm freezing medium for cryopreservation.

Conclusion. Flow cytometry makes it possible to evaluate with high efficiency sperm viability as the part of in vitro fertilization. The results of viability assessment using daffodil lectin make the prediction of in vitro fertilization outcome more accurate.

Medical academic journal. 2020;20(1):83-92
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Clinical research
Effect of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) levels on the development of cognitive and psychoemotional disorders in patients with cerebrovascular disease
Lobzin S.V., Shvartsman G.I., Pervova E.M., Chistova I.V., Yurkina E.A.
Abstract

In recent years, the problem of vascular cognitive impairment is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing prevalence of cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between 25(OH)D, highly sensitive CRP, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and cognitive function in patients with cerebrovascular disease and to assess their impact on quality of life.

Materials and methods. 58 patients with cerebrovascular disease aged 31–81 years were examined. The comparison group consisted of 24 patients, comparable in age and sex, without the studied pathology. In the study, patients were determined by the level of 25(OH)D, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, highly sensitive CRP in peripheral blood. All patients underwent neuropsychological, psychometric examination and study of their quality of life.

Results. In the study, the level of 25(OH)D in patients with cerebrovascular disease was lower compared to the group without this pathology. Concentrations of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and highly sensitive CRP in patients in the main group were statistically significantly higher than in those in the comparison group. Higher concentrations of highly sensitive CRP, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 were found in patients with low vitamin D availability. The study obtained direct correlations between the level of 25(OH)D in peripheral blood and the results of neuropsychological testing (MMSE, MoCA, FAB, Schulte tables (performance), the “Drawing hours” test) and the inverse with the degree of workability (Schulte tables). An inverse correlation of average strength was observed between the results of psychometric testing and the level of 25(OH)D in peripheral blood. The study confirmed the relationship between the level of 25(OH)D in peripheral blood and quality of life indicators, in the form of a direct correlation.

Conclusion. The study found that the higher the concentration of 25 (OH)D and the lower the level of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and highly sensitive CRP in the peripheral blood, the less likely it is to develop cognitive and psychoemotional disorders. The study confirmed the relationship between the level of 25(OH)D and quality of life indicators.

Medical academic journal. 2020;20(1):93-100
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