EXTRAORAL SWEET TASTE RECEPTORS IN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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Abstract


The possible pathogenetic role of extraoral sweet taste receptors Tas1R in respiratory system is considered. In many respects, the function of extraoral receptors for sweet taste still remains unclear. The mechanism of intracellular signal transduction at sweet taste reception is considered, as well as the molecular mechanism of interaction of Tas2R and Tas1R receptors, expressed on the same cell. Tas1R receptors in respiratory system can function as a “rheostat” to control the amount of secretion of antimicrobial peptides that is mediated by extraoral bitter taste receptors Tas2R, depending on the concentration of glucose on the surface of the airways. In diabetes mellitus, the liquid on the luminal surface of respiratory tract contains an increased concentration of glucose, which leads to overexpression of TAS1R2 / TAS1R3, inhibition of Tas2R signaling activity and to decrease in secretion of antimicrobial peptides. Clinically, the effect on glucose homeostasis in the lumen of the respiratory tract with comorbid respiratory pathology, including diabetes mellitus, is considered. A possible sequence of pathogenetic mechanisms in respiratory system, associated with extraoral sweet taste receptors is presented as a vicious circle. Research into the problem of role of the ectopic chemosensory network in clinical medicine will bring new knowledge on the predisposition to diseases, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of their development, and will serve as a scientific basis for developing new medicinal approaches.

V N Mineev

FSBSI “Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

P V Brukhanova

FSBSI “Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

D E Koksharova

FSBSI “Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

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