Vol 15, No 2 (2017)

Flavonoids through the eyes of a pharmacologist. Features and problems of pharmacokinetics
Zverev Y.F.

The review focused on pharmacokinetics of the six major subclasses of flavonoids: their distribution, consumption and metabolism. Particular attention is paid to the problem of the bioavailability of these plant polyphenolic compounds, the differences of the effects obtained in experiments in vitro and in vivo. Discusses the dependence of the efficiency of flavonoids by the characteristics of the processes of metabolism in humans. Emphasizes the role of the epithelium of small intestine and microbiota of the colon in ensuring biological activity of flavonoids.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(2):4-11
The possibilities of pharmacological regulation of the processes of adaptation to dental constructions
Pozhilova E.V., Novikov V.E., Urakov A.L.

The process of patient’s adaptation to dentures depends on many local and systemic factors such as the functional activity of the Central nervous system, temperament of the patient, the condition of the oral cavity tissues and individual adaptive reactions. This review article presents the results of experimental and clinical trials in which we investigated action of different pharmacological groups on the indicators of patient’s adaptation to dental structures at local and systemic use. A comparative analysis of pharmacological agent’s influence on local and systemic factors of adaptation was made. We discuss the possibilities and perspectives of regulation of the adaptation to orthopedic dental constructions with the help of pharmacological agents. The effectiveness of drugs with stress-protective action and with antioxidant and antihypoxic activity was observed.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(2):12-22
The effect of oxytocin on the level and monoamines turnover in the brain of isolated mice of highand low-aggressive lines
Karpova I.V., Bychkov E.R., Marysheva V.V., Mikheyev V.V., Shabanov P.D.

Objective. In the course of the study, the effect of oxytocin on the behavior and level of monoamines of the brain in aggressive male isolates of the initially low-aggressive C57Bl/6 line with similar indices of highly aggressive white outbred mice was compared.

Methods. In experiments on isolated male mice of the low-aggressive C57Bl/6 line and highly aggressive white outbred mice, the effects of oxytocin on the aggressive behavior and the activity of monoaminergic systems of the left and right cerebral hemispheres was investigated. After prolonged social isolation, the male mice, who attacked in the resident-intruder test, were selected for further research. Oxytocin (5 IU/ml, 20μl) was admitrated intranasally. Control animals was treated with saline. With the HPLC-method, in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, olfactory tubercle and striatum of the left and right sides of the brain the concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and their metabolites of dioxyphenylacetic, homovaniline and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids were measured.

Results. Among the male isolates of the C57Bl/6 line, the proportion of aggressive individuals was 56.5%, and among white outbred mice 87.5%. The investigated lines also differed in the attack latency time: aggressive C57Bl/6 mice attacked an average on the 113.1±23.5 second, while in white outbred mice the attack followed on the 35.3±14.7 second (p < 0.01). In the aggressive male isolates of the C57Bl/6 line, which received intranasally saline solution, the content of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus was significantly higher on the right. In C57Bl/6, oxytocin reduced the manifestation of aggression caused by prolonged social isolation (p < 0.05), but had no absolute ability to stop this type of behavior. Under its influence, the level of dopamine in the left cortex (p = 0.054), as well as serotonin content in the right hippocampus (p < 0.05) and in the left striatum (p < 0.05) decreased. In addition, the use of oxytocin in C57Bl/6 neutralized the asymmetry of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus. At the same time there was an asymmetry in the content of dopamine in the cerebral cortex with the predominance of this mediator in the right hemisphere (p< 0.05). In male isolates of highly aggressive white outbred mice, the effect of oxytocin on behavior was not found. However, in these animals oxytocin caused certain changes in monoaminergic systems of the brain. Under the action of oxytocin, the inicial right-sided asymmetry of the level of dopamine metabolites in the striatum and left-sided asymmetry in the level of serotonin in the cortex disappeared. Oxytocin caused an increase in the content of 5-hydroxyacetic acid in the right striatum (p < 0.05) and norepinephrine in the left hippocampus (p < 0.05). In addition, white outbred mice under the influence of oxytocin developed asymmetry with the predominance of norepinephrine in the right olfactory tubercle (p < 0.05).

Conclusions. It can be assumed that relatively weak changes in the state of serotonergic and dopaminergic systems against the background of high reactivity of the noradrenergic system are a feature of the reaction of the brain of highly aggressive animals to oxytocin. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the lateralization of neurotransmitter systems responsible for intraspecific aggression caused by prolonged social isolation.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(2):23-30
The effects of goutweed (Aegopodium Podagraria L.) preparations and their combinations with metformin in rats with the disorders of the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism induced by protamine sulphate
Tovchiga O.V., Gorbatch T.V., Shtrygol’ S.Y., Mishchenko M.V., Stepanova S.I., Taran A.V.

The improvement of the therapy of the metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes is an important task which may be realized through the co-administration of herbal and synthetic medicines. The tincture and extract obtained from the aerial part of goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) have been shown to possess antidiabetic and organoprotective properties. Goutweed tincture exerts a permissive effect on the action of metformin in dexamethasone-treated diabetic rats.

Aim. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the combined use of goutweed tincture and extract with metformin on the model of the primary disorder of the lipid metabolism.

Materials and Methods. The model was used that presupposed administration of protamine sulfate to rats (10 mg/kg per day intramuscularly) against the background of atherogenic diet with the additional administration of cholestrol. Goutweed extract and tincture (1 g/kg and 1 ml/kg intragastrically, respectively), metformin (50 mg/kg intragastrically) and their combinations were administered during the whole period of model development. The lipid composition of the liver and blood plasma, as well as the content of glycogen in the liver were studied, and, as this model is accompanied with insulin resistance, glucose tolerance test was carried out.

Results. It has been shown that all studied drugs and their combinations normalize the lipid composition of the liver, reducing the content of cholesterol and triglycerides and increasing the level of phospholipids. They do not significantly influence on the lipid spectrum of the blood plasma, tend to elevate the level of liver glycogen, their efficacy does not change in combined use. Goutweed tincture and metformin in combination, but not per se, completely normalize area under glucose curve that is significantly increased in the untreated group, the extract does not change this value.

Conclusions. Goutweed extract and tincture normalize the lipid composition of the liver in rats with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism disorders caused by protamine sulfate and atherogenic diet, the tincture also exerts a permissive effect on the action of metformin on glucose metabolism, but not on lipid metabolism.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(2):31-41
The study of the stability of fullerene C60 films
Ilyin V.V., Piotrovskii L.B.

The aim of this work was to study the stability of fullerene C60 upon irradiation by visible light in air flow. The fullerene film with thickness of 100 nm are studied. Analysis of the results was performed by HPLC and UV spectroscopy. It appeared that under experimental conditions the stability of the fullerene is low. When specific power of irradiation of the analyzed films W = 70 mW/cm2 for 300 hours and simultaneously pumping the air, the products of oxidation and polymerization of fullerenes are formed.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(2):42-45
Mesenchymal stem cells of the bone marrow in treatment of genital tuberculosis in rabbits (experimental research with morphological control)
Ariel B.M., Guseinova F.M., Vinogradova T.I., Zabolotnykh N.V., Niaury D.A., Yudintceva N.M., Vitovskaya M.L., Dogonadze M.Z., Rubtsova O.L., Yablonsky P.K.

The aim of this study was to evaluate a therapeutic efficacy of allogenic mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells (MSCs) (5 million / ml dose) in combination with specific therapy in experimental female genital tuberculosis (20 female “Chinchilla” rabbits). It has been shown that on the background of specific therapy the injection of MSCs actively affects reparative processes and promotes reepithelialization of the fallopian tubes 2 months after the inoculation. An active position of myofibroblasts differentiating from the MSC in the reparative reaction and promoting a normalization of epithelium and connective tissue relations was registered. At the same time, the introduction of a new antituberculous drug – tioureidoiminomethylpyridinium perhlorate (perhlozon) to the specific treatment, was contributed to a restoration of structural and functional integrity of the fallopian tubes, by reinforcing the effect of etiotropic substances and by accelerating abacillation.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(2):47-55
Prospects for phytopreparations (botanicals) use in modern pharmacology
Sambukova T.V., Ovchinnikov B.V., Ganapol’sky V.P., Yatmanov A.N., Shabanov P.D.

Relevance. In recent years, the popularity of phytotherapy, despite the great success in the development of chemical medicines, is increasing. Interest in the natural healing substances and preparations created on their basis has increased due to both the unique properties of phytopreparations and the rapidly developing technologies of research in biology, medicine and the production of medicines.

Methodology. The analysis and structuring of the content of literature sources containing information on herbal medicines was carried out.

Results. Herbal preparations (botanicals) have the following advantages: low toxicity at a sufficiently high efficiency; wide range of therapeutic effects; integrated organoprotective effect; harmonizing effect on all organs and systems of the body; minimal side effects; the relative cheapness compared with synthetic drugs; the possibility of cooking in the home. Herbal medicine has been applied as a primary and secondary prevention of various diseases, recovery and rehabilitation of the general population under the impact of negative environmental factors as a means of improving the health of adaptive reserves of the organism, in sports medicine.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(2):56-63
Neurological status and imaging spinal cord in patients with infectious spondylitis: is it possible to comparisons with spondylogenic myelopathy?
Makogonova M.E., Mushkin A.Y., Gavrilov P.V.

Spend a literary analysis of the role of radiation diagnosis in the first place - magnetic resonance imaging to visualize changes in the spinal cord in infectious spondylitis. Neurological disorders, manifested by radicular symptoms and signs of spinal cord irritation to deep paresis and plegia in violation of the pelvic organs, are observed in the majority of patients with spondylitis and may be due to the spinal cord and its roots and / or a breach of its microcirculation on the background of the pathological process in the vertebrae. Dynamic (pre- and postoperative) imaging of the spinal canal and its contents in tuberculous and nonspecific spondylitis is important for a more complete assessment of the disease, and for the prediction of the dynamics of neurological disorders.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(2):64-72
Mechanisms of disorders of the reproductive function in women of the Republic of Dagestan survived the vital stress
Temirkhanova K.T., Tsykunov S.G., Pyatibrat E.D., Shabanov P.D.

The analysis of case histories and ambulatory cards of women from different districts of the Republic of Dagestan. Women experienced psychological trauma in puberty metabolic disorders are manifested by increased glucose level and decrease high density lipoproteins. Violation of reproductive function in women who have experienced psychological trauma high risk of terrorist threat, due to the increase in the concentration of cortisol, prolactin and a decrease in luteinizing hormone and estradiol. Revealed that women exposed to mental trauma associated with a high risk of a terrorist threat in the pubertal period compared to women from areas powerassist attack, developed stressinducing immunity disorders manifested in the reduction of amount of b-cell populations system immune system Supplement available, increased levels of IFN-g and TNF-α and decrease in IL-4 and IL-6. It is proved that the key mechanisms of pathology of the reproductive system are dysregulation of the immune and endocrine systems.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(2):73-79

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