High maize barrier prevents maize pollen transfer in mixed crops

Cover Page

Cite item

Full Text

Open Access Open Access
Restricted Access Access granted
Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


BACKGROUND: There is no scientifically-based assessment for the safety during co-cultivation of genetically modified and ordinary maize plants in Russia. The influence of the barrier from high maize plants for pollen-mediated gene flow in the 2020 field experiment (South-East of the European part of Russia, Saratov region) was evaluated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the high (2,15–2,90 m) maize hybrids (Kaz LK 178 and ES Regain) as a barrier for pollen-madiated gene flow from pollen donor (Purple Saratovskaya) with purple grain to recipient (Bursting Corn) maize line with yellow grain.

RESULTS: The analysis of the ears of the recipient maize line showed that not a single purple grain was found on them. It was found that in the presence of a barrier zone with a width of 3–15 m (depending on the direction), crossing in recipient maize line in all directions from the donor is completely excluded.

CONCLUSIONS: It was established, for the first time, that the barrier from high maize hybrid plants completely excludes over-pollination between donor and Bursting Corn, recipient maize plants with different flowering time. In the study of barrier plants as pollen recipients, it was found that the percentage of crosses on the cob of barrier plants ranged from 0.1 to 7.1%. The number of crosses exceeding 0.9% is observed mainly in the ES Regain variety at close (1–5 m) distances from the donor, regardless of the prevailing wind direction. Based on the results of model experiments, it can be recommended to use a barrier for corn pollen from tall maize plants and maize varieties with different flowering periods to exclude uncontrolled over-pollination of maize varieties in the South-East of the European part of Russia conditions.

Full Text

Restricted Access

About the authors

Mikhail I. Chumakov

Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.
Email: chumakovmi@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6396-2851
SPIN-code: 7354-9680
Scopus Author ID: 7006373586
ResearcherId: A-4258-2014

Dr. Sci. (Biol.), Head of Bioengineering Laboratory

Russian Federation, Saratov

Olga V. Gutorova

Saratov State University

Email: olga.gutorova@mail.ru
SPIN-code: 7711-5984

leading biologist

Russian Federation, Saratov

Yury S. Gusev

Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: gusev_yu@ibppm.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7379-484X
SPIN-code: 1776-5237

Cand. Sci. (Med.), Senior Researcher

Russian Federation, Saratov


  1. United States Department of Agriculture. World Agricultural Production. Current Report, Circular Series. 2019. WAP 7–19.
  2. ISAAA. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech / GM Crops: 2016. ISAAA Brief No. 52. New York: ISAAA, Ithaca. 2016.
  3. Pellegrino E, Bedini S, Nuti M, et al. Impact of genetically engineered maize on agronomic, environmental and toxicological traits: a meta-analysis of 21 years of field data. Sci Rep. 2018;8:3113. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-21284-2
  4. Chesnokov YuV. Genetically modified organisms and genetic pools of plants: environmental and agricultural safet. Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2011;15(4):818–827. (In Russ.)
  5. Chumakov MI, Gusev YuS, Bogatyreva NV, et al. Risks of pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified maize during co-cultivation with usual maize varieties (review). Agricultural Biology. 2019;54(3): 426–445. (In Russ.) doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2019.3.426eng
  6. Ramessar K, Capell T, Twyman RM, et al. Trace and traceability – a call for regulatory harmony. Natural Biotechnology. 2008;26(9):975–978. doi: 10.1038/nbt0908-975
  7. Baram M. Governance of GM crop and food safety in the United States. In: Baram M, Bourrier M, editors. Governing risk in GM agriculture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. P. 15–56. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511976582.003
  8. Marceau A, Gustafson DI, Brants IO, et al. Updated empirical model of genetically modified maize grain production practices to achieve European Union labeling thresholds. Crop Science. 2013;53(4):1712–1721. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2012.04.0224
  9. Bogatyreva NV, Sokolov AY, Moiseeva YM, et al. Regulatory status of genome-editing plants: perspectives for Russian Federation. Ecological genetics. 2021;19(1):89–101. (In Russ.) doi: 10.17816/ecogen42532
  10. Devos Y, Reheul D, De Schrijver A. The co-existence between transgenic and non-transgenic maize in the European Union: a focus on pollen flow and cross-fertilization. Environmental Biosafety Research. 2005;4(2):71–87. doi: 10.1051/ebr:2005013
  11. Riesgo L, Areal FJ, Sanvido O, Rodríguez-Cerezo E. Distances needed to limit cross-fertilization between GM and conventional maize in Europe. Nat Biotechnol. 2010;28(8):780–782. doi: 10.1038/nbt0810-780
  12. Galeano P, Debat CM, Ruibal F, et al. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay. Environmental Biosafety Research. 2010;9(3):147–154. doi: 10.1051/ebr/2011100
  13. Nieh SC, Lin WS, Hsu YH, et al. The effect of flowering time and distance between pollen source and recipient on maize. GM Crops Food. 2014;5(4):287–295. doi: 10.4161/21645698.2014.947805
  14. Brunet J, Ziobro R, Osvatic J, Clayton MK. The effects of time, temperature and plant variety on pollen viability and its implications for gene flow risk. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2019;21(4):715–722. doi: 10.1111/plb.12959
  15. Gusev YuS, Volokhina IV, Moiseeva EM, et al. Evaluation of pollen-mediated gene flow from purple-colored maize line during co-cultivation with yellow-grain maize lines. Russian Journal of Genetics. 2020;56(10):1196–1199. (In Russ.) doi: 10.1134/S1022795420090082
  16. Gusev YuS, Gutorova OV, Moiseeva EM, et al. Assessment of the risks of cross-pollination during co-cultivation of maize lines in the South-East European Russia. Agricultural Вiology. 2021;56(1):66–77 (In Russ.) doi: 10.15389/agrobiology.2020.5.rus
  17. Emberlin J, Adams-Groom B, Tidmarsh J. A report on the dispersal of maize pollen. In: Report commissioned by and available from the Soil Association National Pollen Research Unit. Bristol, UK: Bristol House; 1999. P. 40–56.
  18. Du M, Kawashima S, Matsuo K, et al. Simulation of the effect of a cornfield on wind and pollen deposition. In: Ghassemi F, Whetton P, Little R, Littleboy M, editors. International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Canberra: Australian National University, 2001. P. 899–903 p.
  19. Liu Y, Chen F, Guan X, Li J. High crop barrier reduces gene flow from transgenic to conventional maize in large fields. Eur J Agron. 2015;71:135–140. doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2015.09.005
  20. Patent RUS № 9732/ 11.07.2018. Smol’kina YuV, et al. Kukuruza Purpurnaya Saratovskaya. In: Gosudarstvennyi reestr okhranyaemykh selektsionnykh dostizhenie. Moscow: Rosinformoagrotekh, 2019. 392 p.
  21. Boiko VN. Iskhodnyi material dlya selektsii skorospelykh gibridov kukuruzy na osnove gaploidii [dissertation]. Saint Petersburg: VIR, 2006. 200 p.
  22. Coe EH. Anthocyanin genetics. In: Freeling M, Walbot V, editors. The maize handbook. NY: Springer-Verlag, 1994. P. 279–281. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-2694-9_34

Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Fig. 1. Scheme of the organization of the field experiment in 2020. The wind rose relative to the location of the squares on the selection plot is presented during the period of donor dusting. See text for color designations. KL - variety Bursting corn, KAZ — tall corn hybrid Kaz LK 178, REG — tall corn hybrid ES Regain, PS — corn variety Purple Saratovskaya

Download (190KB)
2. Fig. 2. Verification of the donor and recipient of corn pollen for the ability to interbreed and gametophyte incompatibility: a — cobs of the recipient popcorn (CL) obtained as a result of free pollination in the co-cultivation of Purple Saratov (PS) and CL in the absence of a barrier of tall corn plants; b — ear of hybrid F1 obtained as a result of manual crossing of KL × PS; c - ear of hybrid F1, obtained as a result of manual crossing of PS × CL

Download (144KB)
3. Fig. 3. Ears obtained as a result of free pollination during the joint cultivation of the Purpurnaya Saratovskaya corn variety and barrier plants of the ES Regain variety (tier 5, square 8). Field experiment 2020

Download (232KB)
4. Fig. 1. Scheme of the organization of the field experiment in 2020. The wind rose relative to the location of the squares on the selection plot is presented during the period of donor dispersion of pollen. The color designations are presented in the text. BM – Bursting Maize variety, KAZ – tall-growing hybrid maize Kaz LK 178, REG – tall-growing hybrid maize ES Regain, PS – Purple Saratovskaya maize variety

Download (93KB)

Copyright (c) 2021 ООО "Эко-Вектор"

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies