Vol 1, No 1 (2003)


Template principle in biology (the past, the present, the future?)

Inge-Vechtomov S.G.


Discovery of DNA double structure is a symbol of establishment of the template principle in biology of the XX century. Template processes (replication, transcription, translation) have several common characteristics: they proceed in three consequent steps - initiation, elongation and termination and are followed by correction or repair. All of them possess the character of polyvarian-cy, which means that they arc carried by enzymatic systems composed of interchangeable components, which operate with different precision. There may be enzymatic components, identical or closely related by structure, which are involved in different template processes. Along with linear templates (DNA, RNA) so called first order templates there are space or conformational templates in the cell. The latter ones are represented by some proteins, which can change their conformation, memorize it and transfer to newly synthesized homologous polypeptides (second order templates). The second order templates may interact either with each other or with the first order templates. Knowledge about relations between different template processes in the cell brings a new glance on mutual influence of different types of variability and on their roles in evolution.
Ecological genetics. 2003;1(1):6-15
pages 6-15 views

Human ecological genetics

Bochkov N.P.


A resumptive review of the three types of effects of new environmental factors on human heredity is presented: 1) alteration of hereditary elements (induced mutagenesis); 2) pathological manifestations of gene expression on the specific environmental factors (ecogenetic diseases, pharmacogenetics, toxicogenomics, nutrigenomics); 3) alteration of the population gene pool as a result of disturbance of genetic balance between mutation process and selection. The following thesis is proving: in spite of severity and seriousness of current problems of ecological human genetics, the decision can be made on the basis of fundamental sciences advances and technological progress.
Ecological genetics. 2003;1(1):16-21
pages 16-21 views

Ecological genetics and predictive medicine

Baranov V.S.


The review highlights present state and some future perspectives of new but quickly expanding area of predictive medicine. Its basic background dealing with molecular testing of genetic polymorphisms as well as its practical and theoretical implications are discussed. Original data concerning the involvement of the genes participating in Phase 1 and Phase 2 of detoxification systems as well as of the genes controlling mineral bone density in the origin, progression and treatment efficiency of some common multifactorial diseases such as endometriosis, bronchial asthma, alcoholic cirrhosis, habitual miscarriages, gestosis, lung cancer, chronic bronchitis and osteoporosis are briefly outlined. Of special theoretical and practical value of these studies is an identification of highly nonrandom association of particular functionally inferior alleles of the genes belonging to glutathione-S-transferase super-gene family (GSTM1 (0), GSTT1 (0), GSTPi (s) as well as N-acetyl transferase - NAT-2 (s) with some of these diseases. Molecular testing of the relevant alleles might be recommended as feasible predictive test for personal predisposition evaluation, for estimation of remote prognosis and for the treatment strategy in at least some of these diseases. Early identification of these individuals by means of genetic screening supplemented with subsequent adequate social and medical care should be considered as feasible social program for efficient prevention of these diseases at the national level. Relying on these data as well as on the polymorphism studies and common mutation identification of other genes the idea of Genetic Form for the Pregnant Women is suggested and briefly discussed.
Ecological genetics. 2003;1(1):22-29
pages 22-29 views

Genes and enzymes of metabolic activation of xenobiotics in chemical carcinogenesis

Khudolei V.V.


In the initial stage of chemical carcinogenesis the primary key event is metabolic activation of exogenic carcinogenic substances. The main enzymes of carcinogen's biotransformation (microsomal hydroxylation, reactions of conjugation) and genes which controlling the activity of these enzymes, has been characterized. The tissue(organ)specificity of expression of gene products (isoforms of su-perfamilies of CYPs and GSTs, family of NATs) as well as genetic polymorphism of enzymes involving into the biotransformation of carcinogenic xenobiotics were demonstrated
Ecological genetics. 2003;1(1):30-35
pages 30-35 views

Simbiogenetics of microbe-plant interactions

Tikhonovich I.A., Provorov N.A.


We present the concept of symbiogenetics defined as a branch of general genetics which investigates the Super-Organism Genetic Systems (SOGS) formed due to functional integration of partners' genes during symbiotic interactions. The minimal hereditary unit within SOGS involves no less than a pair of genes that belong to different partners and interact according to the models of complementation or epistasis. Using the examples of plant-microbe interactions we demonstrate that the integrity of SOGS is maintained due to tight signal interactions between partners and is manifested as formation of common biochemical pathways and as development of special symbiotic structures. Using the models of nodule development we demonstrate that the origin of SOGS involves recruiting of genes, which performed diverse functions in free-living organisms, into the symbiotic regulatory networks. The progressive evolution of nodule structures in different dicot lineages was based on the parallel recruiting of genes from the ancestral gene pool into symbiotic regulatory networks. The majority of mutualistic and antagonistic plant-microbe symbioscs represent the components of an evolutionary continuum that originated early in land plants and underwent intensive transformations due to high plasticity of SOGS based on inter- and intra-gene recombination.
Ecological genetics. 2003;1(1):36-46
pages 36-46 views

Metabolites of plants and their role in resistance to phytopathogens

Lutova L.A., Shumilina G.M.


Plant disease resistance is a complex reaction where biochemical peculiarities play a major role. The review is focused on two strategies of improvement of plant resistance to some groups of pathogens. The first strategy is based on a dependence of pathogens on certain plant compounds, i.e. sterols. The lack of these metabolites in a host plant repress pathogen development and reproduction. Here we present modern data on sterol metabolism and their functions in plants as well as description of known plant sterol mutants. The other way to improve plant resistance is to stimulate biosynthesis of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The roles of phytoalexins and steroid glycoalcoloids in the development of plant resistance is described here on certain examples
Ecological genetics. 2003;1(1):47-58
pages 47-58 views

Selection on the evolution rate as one of factors defining the morphology of multi-cellular organisms

Berdnikov V.A.


Evolution of multicellular organisms was accompanied by multiple extinctions, after which the survived phyletic lineages started to conquer the free ecological space. The question arises: how the selection for adaptation to new environment could affect the organism morphology? The rate of evolutionary change of a structure depends predominantly on the number of loci that control its development. As this number increased in the course of evolution, it is hypothesized that the evolutionary trend for complication of organisms is the consequence of selection for the rate of evolution.
Ecological genetics. 2003;1(1):59-66
pages 59-66 views

Bio-informatics and trans-genesis are creating organisms with new features

Kochetov A.V., Omelyanchuk N.A., Ignateva E.V., Likhoshvay V.A., Matushkin Y.G.


Bioinformatic resources (databases of the gene nets, transcriptional and posttranscriptional expression signals, programs for recognition of functional sites and prediction of their activities) are reviewed in respect of their utility for gene engineering experiments.
Ecological genetics. 2003;1(1):67-74
pages 67-74 views

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