The use of contrast media in radiology in children

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Abstract


Using of contrast media (CM) during traditional x-ray examination, CT, MRI plays an important role in obtain information. This information can be crucial for the final diagnosis or making choice of treatment in different areas of medicine, like surgery, pediatrics, oncology, etc. Principles regarding contrast media utilization and associated adverse events are generally similar between children and adults, but of course have some important differences. The main peculiarities of introducing contrast in children are: using small volume of contrast media (1,5-2 ml/kg); small gauge angiocatheters (for example, 24-gauge) located in tiny peripheral vessels. It makes performing this method more hard in newborns and small children. Dose of CM is calculated according body weight and concentration of the stuff. It is important not to forget about optimal temperature mode during introducing CM. As any invasive method introducing of CM can be associated with some complications. The most frequent complications in pediatric patients are contract-induced allergy and contract-induced nephrotoxicity. The assessment of renal function in children is determined by the special formula (Schwartz Equation). General guidelines for the prevention of allergic-like reactions in children are similar to those used for adult patients and include premedication regimen, using a combination of corticosteroid and antihistamine. It is necessary to apply modern multi-layer spiral CT and special programs for reducing radiation exposure.

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About the authors

Anna I Krylova

Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University of Health Ministry of Russia

Email: vanya-krylov@mail.ru
MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Dep. of With a Course of Radiation Oncology Diagnostics and Radiotherapy. St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University.

Elena A Sotnikova

Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University of Health Ministry of Russia

Email: elena_sotnikova@mail.ru
MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Dep. of With a Course of Radiation Oncology Diagnostics and Radiotherapy. St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University.

Aleksandra B Golbits

Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University of Health Ministry of Russia

Email: a_golbits@mail.ru
Resident doctor, Dep. of With a Course of Radiation Oncology Diagnostics and Radiotherapy. St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University.

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Copyright (c) 2016 Krylova A.I., Sotnikova E.A., Golbits A.B.

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