Community-acquired pneumonia in children. The modern features

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Abstract


Acute respiratory infections are one of the most frequent diseases among children and teenagers around the World. Pneumonia which caused by infectious agents is dangerous disease of the lower respiratory tract that can lead to the death. The continuing high level of morbidity and mortality causes the issue. The article describes the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and CAP severity indicators, also radiographic signs of CAP and modern epidemiological data. The etiological structure of CAP has age-specific peculiarities. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is leading causative agent of CAP, it causes invasive and non-invasive forms of pneumonia. The role of atypical pathogens (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae) and viruses was mentioned. The etiology of CAP may vary depending on geographic area, vaccination coverage, using antibiotics. The modern methods for identification of S. pneumoniae were itemized in the article. The own identification from blood lytA gene and cpsA gene S. pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) frequency data was presented. Among examined patients who were hospitalized in clinic SPbGPMU in 2011-2015 years attending preschool children less than 5 years of age prevailed (which accounted for 48%). The invasive form is revealed at 34% of the patients with CAP. In this group of patients course of the disease was severity, there was complications such as pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, and pleural exudation.

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About the authors

Evgeniya V Sergeeva

St Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

Author for correspondence.
Email: ev_sergeeva@bk.ru

Russian Federation Postgraduate Student. Pediatric Department No 2 (Pulmonology, Allergology)

Svetlana I Petrova

St Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

Email: dmsvetlana@yandex.ru

Russian Federation MD, PhD, Associate Professor. Department of Faculty Pediatrics

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Copyright (c) 2016 Sergeeva E.V., Petrova S.I.

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