Features of interleukin status in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

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A hundred years have passed since the first use of insulin as the main means of therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. During this time, significant progress has been made in the development of insulin therapy, including the development of new insulin formulations and methods of its delivery. At the same time, over the years, expanding knowledge about the immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, doctors are trying to reach a completely new level of possibilities in the treatment of this disease. At this level, methods of immunotherapeutic effects on those links of autoimmune chains will become available, which today limit both the therapy of patients with type 1 diabetes and the development of the idea of stem-cells transplantation due to the lack of a holistic understanding of ways to overcome post-transplant immune aggression against β-cells.

The review summarizes the current understanding of known interleukins involved as the most important intermediaries in the phases of initiation and immuno-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells. The achievements in the study of the role of key interleukins in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diabetes for marking potential application points of immunomodulatory targeted therapy are considered.

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Mikhail E. Mailyan

Military Medical Academy named after S.M. Kirov

Author for correspondence.
Email: mailyan_mikhail@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3387-5861
SPIN-code: 2983-9071


Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg

Maksim I. Pugachev

Military Medical Academy named after S.M. Kirov

Email: kenig.max@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5523-8233
SPIN-code: 1549-6552

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg

Sergey B. Shustov

Military Medical Academy named after S.M. Kirov; North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov

Email: sbs5555@mail.ru
SPIN-code: 5237-2036
ResearcherId: O-9450-2015

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg; Saint Petersburg

Vladimir V. Salukhov

Military Medical Academy named after S.M. Kirov

Email: vlasaluk@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1851-0941
SPIN-code: 4531-6011
Scopus Author ID: 55804184100

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Assistant Professor

Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg

Pavel A. Livarsky

Military Medical Academy named after S.M. Kirov

Email: livarsly.98@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0382-266X
SPIN-code: 1080-4234


Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg


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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Fig. 1. A graph of the current global incidence of diabetes mellitus with an expected future prognosis according to the International Diabetes Federation

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2. Fig. 2. Some mechanisms of interleukin-mediated immune autoreactivity in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Solid arrow — positive effect, dotted arrow — negative effect, T-shaped arrow — products. (For a detailed description, refer to the text.) IL — interleukin; Bcl6 — B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6; CD — cluster of differentiation; ST2 — for growth STimulation expressed gene 2; FoxP3 — forkhead box P3, scurfin; STAT5 — signal transducer and activator of transcription 5; TGF-β — transforming growth factor beta; +R-ST2 — specific receptor of stimulating growth factor ST2

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Copyright (c) 2022 Mailyan M.E., Pugachev M.I., Shustov S.B., Salukhov V.V., Livarsky P.A.

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