Therapeutic potential of the stromal vascular fraction in COVID-19

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Abstract

The new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is already known to cause serious respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia and lung failure. COVID-19 has caused catastrophic damage to the public health, economic and social stability. As COVID-19 has resulted in enormous human toll and serious economic loss that poses a global threat, urgent understanding of the current situation and the development of strategies to mitigate the spread of the virus is required. Today, many studies are being carried out around the world to study the pathogenesis of COVID-19, where the development of a “cytokine storm” or pulmonary fibrosis is a serious complication that can lead to unfavorable outcomes. This leads to the fact that a deeper understanding of the nature of the virus will allow to develop new approaches in pathogenetic therapy. In this regard, the stromal vascular fraction has tremendous therapeutic potential in COVID-19. Stromal vascular fraction provides anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects and promotes the restoration and regeneration of damaged tissues. The availability, the ability to obtain a significant volume of viable cells of the stromal vascular fraction population, such as adipose tissue stem / stromal cells, as well as their use by the intravenous route, has proven safe and effective in other forms of lung disease, including fibrotic diseases. In other words, the goal of this therapy for COVID-19 is to eliminate the inflammatory process, restore trophic and regenerate damaged tissues, and remodel fibrous and connective tissue. However, stromal vascular fraction is not currently approved for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 cases. However, clinical trials are ongoing to ensure maximum understanding in terms of efficacy and safety. In this paper, we will discuss this new approach to the use of stromal vascular fraction therapy, which serves as a “ray of hope” in the fight against severe forms of COVID-19

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About the authors

Valentin N. Pavlov

Bashkir State Medical University

Email: pavlovvn.journal@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2125-4897
SPIN-code: 2799-6268

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor, Corresponding Member of the RAS

Russian Federation, 3 Lenin Str., Ufa, 450008, Republic of Bashkortostan

Albert A. Kazikhinurov

Bashkir State Medical University

Email: alberturo@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9284-7855
SPIN-code: 1841-6587

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 3 Lenin Str., Ufa, 450008, Republic of Bashkortostan

Rustem A. Kazikhinurov

Bashkir State Medical University

Email: Royuro@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6813-8549
SPIN-code: 1196-4134

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.), Assistant Professor

Russian Federation, 3 Lenin Str., Ufa, 450008, Republic of Bashkortostan

Murad A. Agaverdiyev

Bashkir State Medical University

Email: isimbasium@bk.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7991-0319
SPIN-code: 5954-3750

MD, PhD student

Russian Federation, 3 Lenin Str., Ufa, 450008, Republic of Bashkortostan

Ilgiz F. Gareev

Bashkir State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: ilgiz_gareev@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4965-0835
SPIN-code: 3839-0621

PhD, Senior Research Associate

Russian Federation, 3 Lenin Str., Ufa, 450008, Republic of Bashkortostan

Ozal A. Beylerli

Bashkir State Medical University

Email: obeylerli@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6149-5460
SPIN-code: 7392-3152

Research Associate

Russian Federation, 3 Lenin Str., Ufa, 450008, Republic of Bashkortostan

Bakhodur Z. Mazorov

Bashkir State Medical University

Email: mazorov94@bk.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6873-0291
SPIN-code: 1764-1691
Russian Federation, 3 Lenin Str., Ufa, 450008, Republic of Bashkortostan

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
Action
1. Fig. 1. Potential action mechanisms of the stromal vascular fraction in COVID-19. Stromal vascular fraction demonstrates three mechanisms of action (anti-fibrotic, pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity) that can be involved in the treatment of COVID-19 through the synthesis of various molecules. MMP-1,2,9 — matrix metalloproteinases-1,2,9; TGF-β1 — transforming growth factor beta 1; TIMP1 — tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1; TGFβR2 — transforming growth factor beta receptor II; HGF — hepatocyte growth factor; miR — microRNA; COL1A1 — the gene encoding the α1 chain of type I collagen; COL3A1 — the gene encoding the α3-chain of type I collagen; VEGF — vascular endothelial growth factor; IL-6, 10, 4 — interleukin-6, 10, 4; PDGF — platelet growth factor; IGF-1 — insulin-like growth factor 1; TNF-R1 — tumor necrosis factor receptor 1; IL1-RA — interleukin 1 receptor antagonist; PGE2 — prostaglandin E2; IFNγ — interferon gamma; TNFα — tumor necrosis factor alpha

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2. Fig. 2. Modulation of the “cytokine storm” by stromal vascular fraction and adipose tissue stem / stromal cells (ADSCs). Possibility of eliminating the “cytokine storm” with the help of transfusion / homing of stromal vascular fraction and adipose tissue stem / stromal cells due to COVID-19. IL-1, 6, 10 — interleukin-1, 6, 10; IFNγ — interferon gamma; TNFα — tumor necrosis factor alpha; ROS — reactive oxygen species

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Copyright (c) 2021 Pavlov V.N., Kazikhinurov A.A., Kazikhinurov R.A., Agaverdiyev M.A., Gareev I.F., Beylerli O.A., Mazorov B.Z.

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