Differentiated approach to radical surgical treatment of elderly patients with tumor diseases of the pancreatoduodenal zone

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a widespread increase in the incidence of tumors of the pancreatoduodenal zone, especially noticeable in the older age group. A decrease in the incidence of postoperative complications and mortality after pancreatoduodenal resection made it possible to expand the indications for surgical treatment of elderly and senile patients.

AIM: Improvement of the immediate results of pancreatoduodenal resection in the treatment of elderly and senile patients suffering from tumor diseases of the pancreatoduodenal zone.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pancreatoduodenal resection was performed in 61 elderly and senile patients with tumors of the pancreatoduodenal zone. The main group consisted of 32 patients, whose treatment was carried out in accordance with the developed algorithm for choosing a method for forming a pancreatodigestive anastomosis based on a scale for assessing the risk of developing pancreatic fistulas. The comparison group consisted of 29 patients in whom the method of forming a pancreatodigestive anastomosis was carried out in accordance with the preferences of the operator without taking into account the risk of developing a pancreatic fistula.

RESULTS: In the main group, compared with the control group, pylorus-saving interventions were performed significantly more often — 27 (84.4%) and 14 (48.3%) (p < 0.01). There was also a decrease in the frequency of performing pancreaticojejunostomy 16 (50%) and 22 (75.9%) (p < 0.05), due to the use of reservoir terminolateral pancreatojejunostomy 8 (25%) and 0, respectively (p < 0.01). Postoperative complications were observed in 14 (43.8%) of the study group and in 21 (72.4%) patients of the comparison group (p < 0.05). There was also a decrease in the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistulas from 8 (27.6%) to 2 (6.2%) (p < 0.05) in the study group. Repeated surgery was required in 5 (15.6%) patients of the main group and 11 (37.9%) in the comparison group (p < 0.05). The lethal outcome was recorded in 3 (9.4%) patients of the main group and in 7 (24.1%) in the comparison group (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The results of performing pancreatoduodenal resection in the treatment of elderly and senile patients can be comparable with the results of treatment of the general population. The use of the developed algorithm made it possible to reliably reduce the incidence of complications from 72.4 to 43.8% (p < 0.05), postoperative pancreatic fistulas from 27.6 to 6.2% (p < 0.05), as well as the frequency of repeated interventions. from 37.9 to 15.6 % (p < 0.05). In addition, a downward trend in mortality was achieved from 24.1% to 9.4%.

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About the authors

Badri V. Sigua

North-West State Medical University Named after I.I. Mechnikov

Email: dr.sigua@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4556-4913
SPIN-code: 5571-8893

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 41 Kirochnaya str., Saint Petersburg, 191015

Vyacheslav P. Zemlyanoy

North-West State Medical University Named after I.I. Mechnikov

Email: zeml.spb@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2329-0023

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 41 Kirochnaya str., Saint Petersburg, 191015

Alexey V. Gulyaev

North-West State Medical University Named after I.I. Mechnikov

Email: ziama-goulia@mail.ru
SPIN-code: 8788-9454

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 41 Kirochnaya str., Saint Petersburg, 191015

Malkhaz Yu. Tsikoridze

North-West State Medical University Named after I.I. Mechnikov

Email: malkhaztsi@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1004-6761
SPIN-code: 9271-7145

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, 41 Kirochnaya str., Saint Petersburg, 191015

Evgeny A. Zakharov

North-West State Medical University Named after I.I. Mechnikov

Author for correspondence.
Email: dr.zakharovea@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2070-7420
SPIN-code: 2649-1050
Russian Federation, 41 Kirochnaya str., Saint Petersburg, 191015

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Supplementary files

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1. Fig. 1. Scheme of the original technique for the formation of reservoir terminolateral pancreatojejunostomy

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2. Fig. 2. Photo of the original technique for the formation of reservoir terminolateral pancreatojejunostomy

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Copyright (c) 2021 Sigua B.V., Zemlyanoy V.P., Gulyaev A.V., Tsikoridze M.Y., Zakharov E.A.

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