No 3 (2019)

Hydrocarbon potential of deeply buried reservoirs in the Astrakhan oil and gas accumulation zone: problems and solutions
Volozh Y.A., Gogonenkov G.N., Delia S.V., Korchagin O.A., Komarov A.Y., Rybal`chenko V.V., Sibilev M.A., Steninzon V.P., Pykhalov V.V., Titarenko I.A., Tokman A.K.

Global experience in oil exploration and the discovery of the Tupi field in Brazil and the Tiber field in the Gulf of Mexico in the last decade have confirmed the existence of giant oil fields with abnormally high formation pressures at depths of 10 km or greater. Until recently, the discovery of large oil accumulations in deeply buried reservoirs was considered as theoretically impossible. This work suggests that giant oil accumulations at great depths (6–10 km) should be considered important hydrocarbon exploration targets in the Russian Federation and the countries of Eurasian Economic Union. The first-priority oil and gas exploration targets at great depths are deeply buried horizons of the sedimentary cover of the Precaspian basin, whose subsalt hydraulic system is characterized by ubiquitous abnormally high formation pressures. The deeply buried reservoirs in the Astrakhan oil and gas accumulation zone are considered the most promising for the discovery of giant oil accumulations.

Геотектоника. 2019;(3):3-23
Crystalline protrusions as the typical stryctural-tectonic model of intragranite hydrocarbon accumulation
Leonov M.G.

The paper deals with issues related to the study questions on magmatic tectonics and intragranitic hydrocarbon accumulating formation: (i) post-magmatic structure of granitic massifs containing hydrocarbons; (ii) mechanisms of structure-material processing, exhumation and forming porosity in granitic bodies on post-magmatic evolutional stage; (iii) availability and distribution of hydrocarbon deposits in granitic massifs located in different geodynamic settings and different regions; (iv) description of crystal piercing bodies  – granite protrusions. The role of structural tectonic factor in intra-granitic hydrocarbon accumulating was estimated. An evolutionary structural-tectonic model of their formation within granitic massifs and, above all, granitic protrusions is proposed.

Геотектоника. 2019;(3):24-41
Srtucture and evolution of ancient and modern tectonic-sedimentary systems
Chamov N.P., Sokolov S.Y., Garetskiy P.G., Patina I.S.

The article discusses the ratio of the size and spatial position of ancient and modern areas of geodynamic processes (tectonic-sedimentary systems) and the resulting geological bodies. It has been established that regardless of the rank and geodynamic affiliation of tectonic-sedimentary systems at all levels, from local to supra-regional, the implementation of geological processes proceeds along the path of least energy expenditure. In the modern structure of the Atlantic-Arctic Rift System, this trend is expressed in the development of strike-slips on the principle of maximum straightening of transfer zones between its segments. In the future, it will also determine progradation of the rift system through Eurasian platform region.

Геотектоника. 2019;(3):42-60
The caspian sea basin: tectonic events and sedimentation at the turn of the early–middle carboniferrous and the formation of oil and gas reservoirs
Kheraskova T.N., Parasyna V.S., Antipov M.P., Bykadorov V.A., Sapozhnikov R.B.

A structural-facies map of the Bashkir stage of the Caspian basin, the southeastern part of the East European platform and the Turan plate is compiled on the basis of drilling data generalization. The sequence of tectonic events and sedimentation processes in the early‒ late Bashkir century of the middle Carboniferous was reconstructed. It is shown that cessation of reef formation, appearance of erosion surfaces and partial destruction of the side ledges of Caspian depression occurred under the influence of Varis orogenesis and the global fall of the World Ocean level due to the glaciation of the Paleogondvana at the turn of early‒middle Carboniferous. It is assumed that oil and gas reservoirs in the rocks of Vise‒Bashkir age are confined to large bodies of carbonate-clastic rocks with clinoform structure that arose on the slopes of the depression due to destruction of its side ledges.

Геотектоника. 2019;(3):61-78
Geofluid dynamic concept of prospecting for hudrocarbon accumulations in the earth crust
Abukova L.A., Volozh Y.A., Dmitrievsky A.N., Antipov M.P.

In our paper we produce new evidence of the tectonosphere and hydrosphere structure of oil and gas sedimentary basins and confirm significant influence of geofluid-dynamic processes on formation of hydrocarbon accumulations in the crust at the great depths. In our opinion the theory based on obsolete views on the tectonosphere structure lessen the importance the sedimentary migration theory of hydrocarbon generation. We prognosticate a particular stagnant type of post-elysionic water-drive systems in the crust at the great depths in conditions of increased hydrodynamic isolation. Absence of regionally sustained vertical and lateral drainage layers characterizes geological environment where stagnant type developed, and, corollary, fluids outflow into external environment is practically unfeasible. The subsalt filling complexes of the epicontinental deepwater basins are included into the post-elysionic water-drive systems. These complexes occur at the great depths and possibility of striking unique and large oil and gas fields there is inherent. We propose a system of fluid-dynamic conditions for preserving hydrocarbon accumulations in the lower crust as a result of developing sedimentary-migration theory for oil and gas formation. We consider the refinement of methods for prospecting and exploration large deposits at the great depths will pave the way for expanded reproduction of hydrocarbon reserves in the “old” oil and gas producing regions in our country.

Геотектоника. 2019;(3):79-91
Application of experimental tectonic methods in petroleum geology on the examples of deposits in Western Siberia
Zubkov M.Y.

Modeling of the most common types formation of anticlinal and uplift-thrust tectonic structures was carried out with using optical polarization and tectonic-sedimentary methods based on seismic sections analysis of various areas and deposits located in the West Siberian oil and gas basin that were selected for examples. Experiments with using the optical-polarization method allowed us to research the nature of the stress-regime arising in the gelatin models of the sedimentary cover due to the growth of anticlinal blocks and uplift-thrust dislocations. By the level of tangential stresses and orientation of isoclines in optical models, zones of probable tectonogenic fracture and the direction of cracks are predicted.

2D tectonic-sedimentation modeling made possible to explain the mechanism of formation of “rootless” uplifts, zones of subsidence or decompression in sediments, the principle of tectonic “pump” function, and to obtain dependencies between size and shape of uplift, density and opening of cracks formed above, to calculate the value of fracture “porosity”, as well as lateral dimensions of zones of tectonogenic fracturing.

3D tectono-sedimentation modeling allowed to link hydrography of the earth surface of the simulated area with decompression of zones that came to the surface in the models. These zones of decompression can serve as a search sign for exploration of highly productive zones containing hydrocarbon deposits.

Геотектоника. 2019;(3):92-109

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