No 1 (2019)

Использование космической информации о Земле
Cloud Changes in the Period of Global Warming: the Results of the International Satellite Project
Pokrovsky O.M.

The results of analysis of climatic series of global and regional cloudiness for 1983–2009. Data were obtained in the framework of the international satellite project ISCCP. The technology of statistical time series analysis including smoothing algorithm and wavelet analysis is described. Both methods are intended for the analysis of non-stationary series. The results of the analysis show that both global and regional cloudiness show a decrease of 2–6%. The greatest decrease is observed in the tropics and over the oceans. Over land, the decrease is minimal. The correlation coefficient between the global cloud series on the one hand and the global air and ocean surface temperature series on the other hand reaches values (–0.84) — (–0.86). The coefficient of determination that characterizes the accuracy of the regression for the prediction of global temperature changes based on data on changes in the lower cloud, in this case is 0.316.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(1):3-13
Analysis of the Seasonal Dependence of the Brightness Temperature of the Ice Sheet of Antarctica by Microwave Satellite Data
Tikhonov V.V., Raev M.D., Khvostov I.V., Boyarskii D.A., Romanov A.N., Sharkov E.A., Komarova N.Y.

The paper presents an analysis of seasonal brightness temperature variations of different regions of Antarctica according to the data of MIRAS (SMOS satellite) and SSMIS (DMSP series satellites) radiometers. As a region of study, the Dronning Maud Land was chosen which includes the main zones of Antarctica: the dome, the zone of runoff winds and the coastal zone. The interrelation of time dynamics of brightness temperature from the change of climatic characteristics of regions is considered. The main factors influencing the change of brightness temperature in different regions of the Antarctic ice sheet are revealed.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(1):14-28
Analysis of Sentinel 1 Radar Data to Identify Frozing/Thawing Soils in the Area of Anadyr (Chukotka) and Belaya Gora (Yakutia)
Rodionova N.V.

The paper deals with the distinction between thawed and frozen soils in the upper 5 cm layer for two stations in Russia: Belaya Gora (Yakutia) 68.5° N and Anadyr (Chukotka) 64.78° N — by using Sentinel 1 C-band radar data for the period of 2014–2016 years. Determination of the frozen/thawed soil state is carried out in three ways: 1) by multi-temporal radar data on the basis of a significant in 3–5 dB difference in the backscatter coefficient σ0 in the transition of freezing/thawing soil state, 2) by finding the threshold value of σ0 at which the temperature in the upper soil layer falls below 00С, 3) by texture features for one- channel images. The graphs of the AFI (air freezing index) for the period of 2012-2018 with trends are constructed based on the archive data of air temperature for the study areas.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(1):29-37
Using remote sensing to studying quantitative properties of ridge landscapes morphological structure in the Caspian lowland
Gonikov T.V.

The paper presents the results of studying ridge landscape patterns (formed by Baer mounds) of the Northern Caspian region on the basis of the mathematical landscape morphology approaches. A methodology for studying patterns includes the use of remote sensing data and mathematical methods. Mathematical analysis of six sample areas has revealed that the perimeters and diameters of the ridges fit the lognormal distribution. Discrete indicators that characterize the location of the ridges, complies Poisson`s distribution in most cases. It was revealed that the river erosion destroys the moan`s morphology which leads to their diameters does not fit the lognormal distribution. We test the arguments in favor of various theories of the Baer mounds origin from the point of view of the quantitative features of the morphological structure.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(1):38-46
Application of remote sensing for detection of zones of cataclastic and metasomatic rocks on the area of the Uvatsky ore cluster (Eastern Sayan)
Milovsky G.A., Shemyakina E.M., Belyakov A.A.

Interpretation materials of the Russian space survey «Resource-P» (Geotone) in the visible and infrared bands made it possible to identify crush belts and faults of the northeastern, sublatitudinal and submeridional strike that determine the structural position of uranium mineralization within the Uvat ore cluster in the East Sayan. The principal possibility of using a high-resolution multi-zone space survey (3 m) for detecting metasomatically altered ore-bearing rocks of the Lower Proterozoic and Riphean-Paleozoic carbonate-terrigenous deposits was determined.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(1):47-54
Trends in sea surface temperature of the Sea of Okhotsk and adjacent water areas by satellite data in 1998–2017
Lozhkin D.M., Shevchenko G.V.

For the Sea of Okhotsk and the adjacent water areas, a series of mean monthly sea surface temperature values were computed from satellite measurements of 20 years (1998–2017). In each space cell, the coefficients of the linear trend are determined by the method of least squares. Such coefficients were calculated for each month separately, for the whole series as a whole, and also for average values of the temperature for the season. The relationship of these coefficients to the observed decrease in ice extent in the water area of the Sea of Okhotsk during the last twenty years has been analyzed. It is shown that the heat content of the surface layer in this basin decreases, most significantly in its northern and western parts. This trend is especially pronounced in the spring, which may be due to a decrease in ice cover and a more significant cooling of the waters due to winter convection.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(1):55-61
Физические основы исследования Земли из космоса
Spectroscopic multi-relaxation dielectric model of thawed and frozen arctic soils considering dependence on temperature and organic matter content
Mironov V.L., Savin I.V.

The article presents the temperature spectroscopic dielectric model of moist soils, developed on the basis of measurements of six thawed and frozen Arctic soils with different contents of organic matter, from 30 to 90%. This model allows predicting the complex permittivity values of moist soil, which are in good agreement with the data of dielectric measurements. The model is applicable in the frequency range from 0.05 to 15 GHz, the temperature range from –30° to +25 °C, the humidity range from 0.009 to 1.001 g/g. The model for use in remote sensing algorithms of humidity and soil temperature using space radiometric and radar sensing data can be recommended.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(1):62-73
Космические аппараты, системы и программы ИЗК
Operational capability assessment for the hyperspectral sensor NA-GS using statistical and simulation modeling
Zotov S.A., Dmitriev E.V., Shibanov S.Y., Kozoderov V.V., Donskoy S.A.

Within the framework of the program on Earth remote sensing from space, the hyperspectral camera NA-GS (scientific instrument "Hyperspectrometer") produced by NPO Lepton (Zelenograd, Moscow) will be installed on the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS) for experimental testing of the ground-space system for monitoring and forecasting natural and man-made disasters. The practical use of this system is associated with solving certain problems of thematic processing hyperspectral images that must meet certain quality criteria. In this paper, we propose a technique for determining the operational capabilities of NA-GS instrument based on statistical simulation modeling (SSM) data. The concept of the proposed SSM includes the ability to perform model experiments for a test polygon of complex shape, simulation of hyperspectral imaging of selected parts of the polygon with a specified accuracy, and taking into account the clouds and the zenith angle of the sun. The influence of external observation conditions on the quality of hyperspectral images is considered. Numerical experiments were carried out for selected test areas. The analysis of the results obtained confirms reliability of the proposed technique.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(1):74-83
Precision drones – today and tomorrow
Getsov P., Nachev S., Wang B., Zafirov D.

Described are the possibilities for increasing accuracy in determining the location of unmanned aircraft. Compared are the capabilities of different coordinate systems to increased the accuracy to 2.5 cm. The methods for transmitting coordinate correlation data are described. In conclusion, it is assumed that for the accurate determination of the coordinates of mobile objects it is most appropriate to use the transmission of Real Time Kinematics corrections by network of a mobile operator.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(1):84-91

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