No 4 (2019)

Физические основы исследования Земли из космоса
Using radar polarimetry to monitor changes in backscattering mechanisms in landslide zones for the case study of the Bureya river bank collapse
Bondur V.G., Chimitdorzhiev T.N., Dmitriev A.V., Dagurov P.N., Zakharov A.I., Zakharova L.N.

Abstract

The possibilities of radar polarimetry methods for identification of landslide zones are analyzed here. The fact of transformation of the dominant scattering type by the reflecting surface was used as a key feature of the landslide zone. ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 polarimetric data were processed using the Freeman–Durden and Cloude–Pottier decompositions for the four test sites selected in the area of a landslide caused by the Bureya river bank collapse. The decomposition results are consistent with each other in general, however, some areas show significant differences due to the specifics of the basic model provisions. It is shown that before the landslide event on the landslide area there were three main mechanisms of radar signal scattering: surface, volume, and double scattering. After the collapse, this area is characterized by a single scattering from the surface with large-scale irregularities and without vegetation. So, the landslide area can be confidently recognized. The considerable potential of using the radar polarimetry method for remote diagnostics of the effects of landslide phenomena has been demonstrated.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(4):3-17
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Field tests of photogrammetric evaluation technique of snow-glacial surface albedo
Zhuravskiy D.M., Prokhorova U.V., Ivanov B.V., Yanjura A.S., Kuprikov N.M., Kurapov M.V.

Abstract

The article discusses the results of applying in Antarctica an original technique for estimating albedo from photogrammetric data and exposure parameters by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The complexities of the photogrammetric observations under extreme conditions are considered. Conclusions are drawn on ways to improve the recording equipment and the direction of improving the technique for calculating albedo values based on photogrammetric materials and metadata.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(4):18-28
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Использование космической информации о Земле
On the changes in the sea surface temperature in the benguela upwelling region. Part 2: the long-term tendencies
Polonsky A.B., Serebrennikov A.N.

Abstract

The paper examines the issue on the long-term trends in the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Benguela upwelling zone and their causes using the daily SST satellite data for 1985–2017’s and the daily near-surface wind for 1988–2017”s. It is shown that in the Benguela upwelling region, there is a significant intensification of driving winds in the last 20 yrs. This is accompanied by a decrease of the thermal upwelling index (taking into account the sign of the index or an increase of its absolute values) in the southern part of the Benguela upwelling, but practically does not influence this indicator in its northern part. The likely reason for this difference is the change in the wind field structure, as a result of which there are opposite trends in the magnitude of the vorticity of the tangential wind stress in different parts of the Benguela upwelling. In the southern part of the Benguela upwelling, both the Ekman’s upwelling and the vertical velocities due to the vorticity of the driving wind intensify, while in the northern part the corresponding trends have the opposite signs. This leads to a partial compensation of these two effects in the northern part of the Benguela upwelling. The reason for the change in the wind field structure is the displacement of the center of the Subtropical High to the south-east and the concomitant reversal of the near-surface wind vector in the coastal zone.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(4):29-39
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Water circulation in the north-western Bering sea studied by satellite data
Andreev A.G.

Abstract

The surface water circulation in the Bering Sea for the period from 2002 to 2017 has been investigated using satellite data. In January, the main stream of surface waters was directed to the south-west along the continental slope, and anticyclonic water circulation was observed on the shelf. In July, the surface water flow was oriented to the northeast along the continental slope, and on the shelf the cyclonic movement of water prevailed. The formation of mesoscale anticyclones in the winter period was caused by the supply of shelf waters with low temperature and salinity. The temporal variability of the currents during the summer is associated with coastal upwelling caused by the winds of the southern points over the western part of the Bering Sea. The presence of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies should be considered as one of the factors leading to the formation of a region with a high concentration of chlorophyll near the coast in the summer season.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(4):40-47
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Crop yield forecasting based on the satellite monitoring of carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems
Lysenko S.A.

Abstract

A low-parametric model of crop biomass dynamics using the data of satellite remote sensing of terrestrial vegetation index and routine meteorological observations is developed. Modeling is performed with a data filtered by yield-correlation image masking technique. The simulation is based on the Monteith equation for carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Meteorological parameters that have an effect on the photosynthesis intensity but rarely measured directly are calculated on the basis of analytical parameterizations obtained from reanalysis data. A validity of the model is demonstrated by the example of satellite monitoring of the spring wheat yield in the regions of the Republic of Belarus.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(4):48-59
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The structure of the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) potential habitats and evaluation of its prey in the Taipingou national park (China) based on remote sensing data
Zhu S., Qu Y., Liu Y., Dobrynin D.V., Sukhova O.V., Kotlov I.P., Sandlersky R.B., Yachmennikova A.A., Rozhnov V.V.

Abstract

Today the population of the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) in the Russian Far East is being restored, young individuals are spread within the historical range, including the territory of China. Here the assessment of the territories suitability that exists at Northeastern China as the habitat of the Amur tiger and its food supply (three species of ungulates – wild boar, red deer and roe deer) are shown. Basically a specially protected area is chosen – the Taipingou National Park, located on the border of the Public Republic of China and Russia. The modeling of habitat suitability for ungulates was carried out on the basis of remote sensing data (Earth remote sensing) by using two different approaches – expert geo-information assessment of the territory and discriminant analysis modeling. The modeling of the suitability of ungulate habitats without the variability of plant communities based on discriminant analysis and showed a small difference between the model results for wild boar and roe deer. Nevertheless, the connection with the morphometric characteristics of the relief is more important for the wild boar than for the roe deer, and for the roe deer there is a variability of vegetation types more important. The results of the analysis that included the type of biotopes, showed that the wild boar prefers the central and northern parts of the Taipingou National Park, while the roe deer is the western part of the park; red deer is more common in the southern part of the park.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(4):60-86
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Космические аппараты, системы и программы ИЗК
On the 50th Anniversary of the Flight of the Satellite «Intercosmos-1»
Issledovanie zemli iz kosmosa B.

Abstract

On the 50th Anniversary of the Flight of the Satellite «Intercosmos-1»

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(4):87-93
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ARTICLES
Anatoly Tikhonovich Zverev (on the 80th Anniversary)
Issledovanie zemli iz kosmosa B.

Abstract

Anatoly Tikhonovich Zverev (on the 80th Anniversary)

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(4):94
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Correction
Nerushev A.F., Visheratin K.N., Ivangorodsky R.N.

Abstract

Correction to the article “Dynamics of high-altitude jet flows according to satellite measurements and their relationship with climatic parameters and large-scale atmospheric phenomena”, authors A.F. Nerushev, K.N. Visheratin, R.V. Ivangorodsky (“Exploration of the Earth from Space.” 2018. No. 6. P. 24–38).

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(4):95-96
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