No 3 (2016)

Articles

Analysis of market of row-crop cultivators

Fomenko D.S., Nesmiyan A.Y.

Abstract

The row crops occupy a prominent position in agriculture. For example, in the Rostov Region nearly 25% of the acreage annually is under row crops. One of the features of cultivation of row crops is the possibility of mechanical weed control after emergence of seedlings. Mechanical inter-row cultivation could not be substituted for the chemical one, because the first gives rise to a loose mulch layer on the soil surface that contributes to the accumulation of soil moisture. This is particularly important for arid areas of agriculture, including the North Caucasus and Lower Volga Region. Among other things, mechanical cultivation is much more environmentally friendly than chemical one. There is a large number of row-crop cultivators of both domestic and foreign manufacture in the Russian market. The purpose of the study is to identify the main trends in the manufacture of row-crop cultivators that are typical for global enterprises of agricultural machinery industry. With the aim of a qualitative assessment of domestic and foreign brands of row-crop cultivators, the paper analyzes the technical parameters of the most common samples in the market of the South of Russia. The study reveals that in their design domestic and foreign row-crop cultivators differ from each other slightly, mostly only in the width of rows. On all of the considered row-crop cultivators, the parallelogram suspensions of working organs are used. Their basic designs are identical for nearly all machines: the main working organs are the A-hoe blades with different grasp width. The motion speed of the unit lies in the range of 5-10 km/h and depends on the type of working organs and landscape conditions. Weight of fertilizer distributing system in row-crop cultivator is 11-16% of the total weight of the machine, while the specific weight of Russian cultivator is 1.35 times larger than the imported one, which is due to the use of lighter and stronger materials in the manufacture of imported cultivators.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(3):3-8
pages 3-8 views

On the selection of parameters of double-flow hydromechanical transmission for industrial and forestry tractors

Sharipov V.M., Kotiev G.O., Shchetinin Y.S., Vyaznikov M.V., Gaev S.V., Rozenoer M.G.

Abstract

Double-flow hydromechanical transmissions are widely used in industrial and forestry tractors. The main advantage of such transmission is the higher value of the maximum efficiency coefficient in comparison with the single-flow one. The article presents a method of selection of parameters of such transmissions for industrial and forestry tractors. In this case, it considers the hydromechanical transmission with a differential unit at the input and at the output. Three-link differential devices with mixed type of gear engagement are used as the differential unit. All of the twelve possible schemes of double-flow hydrodynamical transmissions are considered. It is shown that double-flow hydrodynamical transmission has an operation mode when the torque converter turbine is rotating counter to the rotation of pump wheel. This factor is taken into account during the selection of parameters of double-flow hydrodynamical transmission. The article describes the method of construction of external characteristic of the transmission and matching of its load characteristic with the full-load curve of diesel engine. The matching is performed by three ways: the selection of required value of active diameter of torque converter; the selection of reduction ratio of matching gear; the selection of characteristic of planetary gear set. It is found that for the most common scheme of double-flow hydromechanical transmission when the characteristic of planetary gear set is reduced, its maximum efficiency coefficient is increased, the active diameter of torque converter is reduced and the relative rotation frequency of satellite gears of three-link differential device is increased. In this case, the rotation frequency of satellite gears limits the minimum value of characteristic of planetary gear set. Increasing of characteristic of planetary gear set leads to the reducing of transparency of the hydromechanical transmission and to increasing of its transformation ratio. It is shown that the double-flow hydromechanical transmission allows to utilize more fully the converting properties of engine in comparison with the single-flow one; it allows to change the torque value if external engine load is changing, that is very important for industrial and forestry tractors.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(3):8-14
pages 8-14 views

Theory of interaction between vibratory tillage tools and soil

Fedorenko I.Y.

Abstract

The study deals with mathematical simulation of the interaction between vibratory tillage tools and soil. Most studies on the use of vibrations in tillage processes give conflicting results about their technological and energy efficiency. The issue of mathematical description of the interaction between vibratory tillage tools and soil is quite complicated and primarily determined by a variety of physical and mechanical properties of the object of tillage. This paper studies purely mechanical effects of vibrations as applied to tillage processes. The research goal is to reveal the patterns that characterize the vibration effects on the soil, and to determine the mechanism of the conversion of the resistance of vibratory tillage tools to a viscous type of friction. The analysis of the resistance of vibratory tillage tools is carried out based on the analysis of the rational equation by academician V.P. Goryachkin. The soil is idealized as a viscous and plastic medium. The case of sinusoidal variations of a tillage tool in addition to its translational motion is investigated. The effect of vibrations on all three resistance components of tillage tool (friction, deformation and inertia) is analyzed. The methods of differential and integral calculus are used. It is shown that all the components of the soil resistance change under the effect of vibrations; the effect may be both positive and negative. Resistance reduction is possible in the case when the amplitude of the vibration velocity of tillage tool exceeds its translational velocity. Respectively, the power consumption of tractor traction mechanism may also be reduced. However, the overall power consumption, including the power consumption of the vibration exciter, is not reduced as compared to the operation of conventional tillage tools. These theoretical results are proved by the experimental studies of A.A. Dubrovskiy. The linearization of the traction resistance of the vibratory tillage tools (its dependence on the translational velocity) is explained in this study based on the general laws of mechanics, without using hypotheses on physical change of soil properties.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(3):15-19
pages 15-19 views

To the determination of heating temperature of an object of thermal influence in solar power plants

Kupreenko A.I., Komogortsev V.F., Isaev K.M., Chenin A.N., Shkuratov G.V.

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to find the mathematical dependence of heating temperature of the object of thermal influence of solar power plant on its usage time under conditions of variable external factors. The object of thermal influence can be, for example, the wet grain meant for drying, the fresh air for natural ventilation systems of livestock houses, the water to heat up etc. The variable external factors are the weather conditions needed for right operating of solar power plant, in particular the solar activity throughout the day. The object of this research is the grain heating process in drum solar dryer. It is known that grain heating above a required temperature may reduce its viability. Therefore, in this case, forecasting of temperature for grain heating is of great importance for ensuring the quality of drying as a technological process. The time of effective use of solar energy in the drum solar dryer for grain heating process is about seven hours per day for conditions of the Bryansk region. In the basis of analysis of available experimental data, it is accepted that there is a directly proportional dependence between temperatures of the drying agent (the warmed-up atmospheric air) and grains during drying process. The differential equation of heat-transfer between grain and drying agent is solved using the methods of variable separation and substitutions. The dependence of the temperature of the object of thermal influence of solar power plant on its usage time under conditions of variable external factors is obtained. The analysis of the obtained exponential dependence shows that temperature of the object of thermal influence is generally defined by its reference temperature, weight and a thermal capacity, heating duration, heat-transfer coefficient.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(3):20-22
pages 20-22 views

Calculation model of technological process of soil crumbling by means of tillage working organs

Blednykh V.V., Svechnikov P.G., Troyanovskaya I.P.

Abstract

Working organs being used currently for subsurface tillage do not comply with agrotechnical requirements. In particular, the crumbling of soil layer is unequal across the width of cutting plane of working organ. The scientific hypothesis is that variable cutting angle along the length of blade improves the crumbling of soil layer. The mathematical model of interaction between the soil and a wedge is proposed. As the result, the theoretical dependencies of resistance force of soil to destruction and of thickness of shear layer on the setting angle of tillage tool are obtained. A set of dihedral wedges with different angles of inclination has been used in experimental studies. The tests have been performed in media with a wide range of physical and mechanical properties (ordinary humus, sand, clay). It is determined experimentally that all media interacting with the wedge have some common characteristics depending on the parameters of wedge, in spite of differences of physical and mechanical properties and the appearance of layer formation. The experimental dependence of equivalent stresses on cutting angle of the wedge is obtained. Experimental and theoretical results agree well with each other. On the basis of these studies, the working organs with variable cutting angle are developed. It is revealed that the blade with variable cutting angle creates more tension in the soil layer than a blade with constant cutting angle. It is experimentally confirmed that the working organs with variable cutting angle along the length of the coulter crumble the layer by 20-50% better than serial working organs. The economic effect of the introduction of working organs with variable cutting angle is 200-1300 rubles per hectare of cultivated area.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(3):22-26
pages 22-26 views

Influence of particulate filler from waste fractions of abrasive wheels on wear-out rate of composites based on epoxy

Mikhal'chenkov A.M., Biryulina Y.Y., Mikhal'chenkova M.A.

Abstract

In spite of wide use of the polymer adhesive composite disperse materials in various industries, they aren’t in demand as materials for the restoration and strengthening of the friction surfaces of parts of tillage machines. The reason lies in the obscurity of their tribotechnical properties. First of all, these materials include the composites based on epoxy components filled with waste fractions of abrasive wheels. Therefore, the wear pattern during the testing time, as well as the effect of testing time on wear-out rate of the composite and of epoxy composition without filler have been investigated. The studies were of comparative nature and were carried out using an individual method. The content of this method is testing of 16 samples simultaneously in the same conditions at any time of the experiment. The epoxy composition (100 weight parts of ED-20 epoxy and 7 weight parts of hardener) and the composite comprising such epoxy composition and abrasive waste fractions of grinding wheels in the ratio of 30% to 70% respectively have been studied. The results of the experiments show that the dependence of wear and wear-out rate on testing time has a classic nature, identified previously in number of studies. The presence of dispersive component in composite in the form of waste fractions of abrasive wheels has a positive effect on reducing of its wear-out rate. It is established that the wear-out rate of composite is 1.5 times less than the wear-out rate of epoxy composition without filler, providing thereby the possibility of its use as an abrasion-resistant repair material for restoration of parts.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(3):27-30
pages 27-30 views

Quality of agricultural machinery and control of its manufacture and repair

Leonov O.A., Bondareva G.I., Shkaruba N.Z., Vergazova Y.G.

Abstract

The article considers the factors influencing on the quality of manufacture and repair of agricultural machinery from the perspective of application of one of the newest methods of the quality analysis known as Principle of 5 M - men, methods, materials, machines, measures. It is defined that in all five indices the domestic agricultural machinery considerably lags behind the foreign one. The main reasons are the use of cheap raw materials, the lack of modern processing equipment with high precision, the lack of highly skilled and highly paid workers, the designing of machines by means of archaic methods, the small degree of information support on modern technologies and specifics of branch machinery, especially internationally. The role of control in formation of quality of manufacture and repair of agricultural machinery is highlighted. The purchasing manager of a large repair enterprise has to provide in the contract for delivery of incoming production the conditions on the presence of a defined limit of defects with selective check of incoming consignment. For a small enterprise, there is the simple recommendation to take a technical documentation and instruments of control along when going on a warehouse for spares, and to buy only good products of manufacturer or well-established similar products. The main objectives of metrological service in repair enterprises are defined. Modern metrological provision during machine repair is the system ensuring the quality of control that includes: the strict ensuring unity of measurements; the choice of critical control points, which are subject to rigid control; the feasibility study of choice of measuring instruments by criteria of minimization of costs and losses for controlled products; the regular actions on adjustment of measuring instruments, the tests and control during maintenance and repair of agricultural machinery.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(3):30-32
pages 30-32 views

Resource-saving technology and technical devices for restoring of operational features of lubricating and cooling fluids

Charykov V.I., Sokolov S.A., Evdokimov A.A.

Abstract

Today, one of the main tasks is to develop and create resource-saving machines and technologies for cleaning of lubricating and cooling fluids. The subjects of research are regularities of processes of cleaning of these fluids from metal magnetic particles in an electromagnetic separator, development of technical means and technologies of the electromagnetic cleaning of lubricating and cooling fluids. Existing techniques and methods for cleaning of lubricating and cooling fluids are very energy-intensive. They require complex and expensive installations, have low productivity and do not allow to obtain a high degree of cleaning from metal magnetic particles. According to the analysis of existing constructions, the electromagnetic separator UMS-4M (УМС-4М) designed for cleaning of fluid materials from metal magnetic impurities has been developed in the Kurgan State Agricultural Academy. The distinctive feature of this installation is that for extracting of metal magnetic particles, the magnetic field concentrators are used. They enable to create high-gradient inhomogeneous magnetic field. The separation zone is located in closed contour of direct-current. The separator is installed on the process line for cleaning of lubricating and cooling fluids. New constructive technical devices are developed. These are netlike concentrators of inhomogeneous magnetic field which help to ensure efficiency of cleaning from metal magnetic particles up to 98%; the installation performance is 40 l/h. The scheme of the process line for cleaning of lubricating and cooling fluid for enterprises of agroindustrial complex is proposed. The base of the process line consists of the electromagnetic separator and storage tanks to collect lubricating and cooling fluids.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(3):33-36
pages 33-36 views

Machines and technologies of entire lands levelling for paddy field

Efremov A.N., Nasonov S.Y.

Abstract

The entire lands levelling for paddy field with the precision of ±3 cm provides heavy and stable rice crop and irrigation water saving. The purpose of the article is the determination of technical and economic indicators of various machines and technologies of levelling for paddy field and the estimation of efficiency of their use. At the beginning of levelling, executive survey of the check should be performed with application of the laser transmitter and automatic level. Based on the recorded survey data, the plan of levelling operations is made on computer with special software. Entire lands levelling requires the use of various machines: the scraper, the land leveller, the V-type leveller, the ejector scraper. Four main variants of technology are used. In the first and second variants of technology, the scraper and land leveller are used; in the third one there are V-type leveller, scraper and land leveller; in the fourth one the ejector scraper is in use. Each machine is equipped with the laser transmitter, laser receiving device and hydraulic unit, which provides levelling precision of ± 2-3 cm. After the levelling by analogy with executive survey, the control one is performed and according to the constructed cartogram, the precision of the levelled surface of the check is estimated. The technical characteristics of the automated machines are presented. Based on the analysis of performance of various types of machines, it is established that the ejector scraper has significant advantages due to the increased volume of soil transportation in scraper mode and the increased thickness of soil cutting in comparison with the land leveller. All of this improves performance of the ejector scraper and reduces number of its passes. The ejector scraper also is applicable in finishing levelling in operating mode of land leveller. The calculated dependences for determination of process capacity of various machines used in the levelling are given. The formulas for calculation of its cost and economic efficiency for the main variants of technology are also given. On the basis of indicators of operational characteristics of machines and calculated data of economic efficiency, the technical and economic indicators of entire lands levelling for paddy field in conditions of Krasnodar Krai are determined. The lowest cost of levelling operations and the maximum economic benefit corresponds to the variant of technology using one multi-purpose ejector scraper with short base.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(3):37-42
pages 37-42 views

Aggregating of component modules of the KZR-10 (КЗР-10) grain-harvesting machine with multipurpose power vehicle

Dmitrenko A.I., Bur'yanov A.I.

Abstract

In agriculture of European countries new grain-harvesting machines of higher technical level, namely module-construction aggregates based on multipurpose power vehicles and replaceable harvesting modules are designed and used. These aggregates have some disadvantages and need to be improved. The object of the research is to determine the direction of improving of methods for aggregating of component modules of series-manufactured grain-harvesting machine KZR-10 (КЗР-10) with its chassis. It is supposed that the aggregating of such modules with the chassis is reasonable in the case of supplying of harvested product to thrashing and separating device of the machine, and its further cleaning in grain cart. It is possible when improving the layout diagram of chassis of multipurpose power vehicle and aggregating of component modules with it. In proposed variant of aggregating, the chassis of multipurpose power vehicle has running wheels with equal diameter and undermount power unit between them. The driving cab is adapted to quickly moving on the chassis in traversal and vertical directions. Main module of machine, the thrashing and separating device is mounted on the top of chassis by means of proper mechanism. The rotor of thrashing and separating device is located along longitudinal axis of chassis and combines thrashing and longitudinal direct-flow travel of thrashed heap, and its transfer to grain cart. The header of harvesting module is mounted on the chassis of multipurpose power vehicle by means of the feed elevator matching with thrashing and separating device. The indices of aggregating of component modules of grain-harvesting machine with chassis of multipurpose power vehicle are determined by calculations. They confirm that new aggregating scheme is appropriate. Such aggregating allows to reduce the load coefficient of carrying wheels of chassis of multipurpose power vehicle and to increase the load coefficient of driven wheels and controllability of chassis according to Russia's existing safety standard.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(3):43-47
pages 43-47 views

On the development of environmentally friendly all-season vehicles for agricultural purposes

Godzhaev Z.A., Izmaylov A.Y., Evtyushenkov N.E., Kryukov M.L.

Abstract

In order to harvest and transport the crop on soils with low bearing capacity a number of designs of harvesting and transport vehicles on caterpillar track was developed. Currently, there is a large fleet of harvesting and transport vehicles operating on caterpillar drive in the Far East, CIS countries, Baltic countries, Central Asia, Cuba, Vietnam and China. The main feature of that class of vehicles is necessity to provide the high floatation with minimal destruction of topsoil. The most important customer requirements to the caterpillar drive are the ones for reduction of noise and parts vibration levels, for increase of travelling and operating speeds of vehicles, for driving comfort, for increase of service life and for reduction of negative impact on the soil. Russian agriculture suffers great losses because of the lack of machinery to work on soils with low bearing capacity, which leads to the fact that harvesting of winter crops lasts more than 40 days, and the losses are 42%. On a rainy year, the number of harvesting and transport machinery increases, but the machinery is unable to get on the field and stands idle. To improve the efficiency of agriculture, it is necessary to develop the technical means to carry out the transport and technological processes under adverse weather conditions. A number of crops like soybeans and rice is cultivated using paddy fields, which makes difficulties for crop transporting from harvesters. During fertilizer application, about 40% of the soil surface is compacted by wheels. Compaction of soil during plowing facilitates the formation of large and dense clots worsening the conditions of normal growth of plants. Currently, none of series-produced vehicles used in agriculture meets the requirements of 26955-86 state standard.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(3):48-52
pages 48-52 views

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