Vol 83, No 6 (2016)

Articles

Implements for embedding of green manure into the surface soil in organic farming technology

Astaf'ev V.L., Bobkov S.I., Aleksentsev K.I.

Abstract

The article analyzes the ways of embedding of green manure into soil; it describes the design and technological schemes of implements which can be used in organic farming technology for realization of these ways. The purpose of the research is to develop the implements for embedding of stubble remains and green manure into the surface soil, which will increase the productivity and provide proper quality of technological process. It is an actual problem at present, when the use of stubble remains and green manure with other factors gives wide range of opportunities to increase the soil fertility. Theoretical and experimental methods used in the research are based on application of the fundamentals of agricultural mechanics, the theory of agricultural machines and measurement methods regulated by standards. The article presents the results of theoretical research that substantiates the design and technological schemes of two implements. The first implement is intended for plants shredding and mulch forming on the surface of soil; the second one is for shredding of green manure and stubble remains and their embedding into the surface soil. The parameters of compacting roller with shredding elements that is a basic working organ of both implements are substantiated. The results of experimental researches are presented; they confirm the results of theoretical research on substantiation of parameters of compacting roller. It is concluded that the use of suggested implements in organic farming technology provides high-quality plants shredding and mulch forming on the surface of soil, as well as shredding of green manure and stubble remains and their embedding into the surface soil.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):3-7
pages 3-7 views

Grain loss sensor for pneumatic separation systems of grain-cleaning machines

Zholobov N.V., Maishev K.V.

Abstract

One of the reasons of poor effectiveness of machines for postharvest grain handling is the difficulty of optimal modes setting under constantly changing input actions. Using of hardware check and technological process control instead of manual adjustment will reduce the costs and improve the quality of postharvest grain handling. A grain loss sensor for device of parameter checkout of technological process of pneumatic systems of grain-cleaning machines is developed. Its operation is based on the analysis of parameters of sound pressure signal, that arises when grains blowing together with impurities are hitting against a wall of settling chamber. The sensor design is developed on the basis of Soho T-1 low-cost piezometric transducer. The sensor is located on the outer side of a wall against which grains are hitting, and lies outside the air stream carrying the impurities and dust. Therefore, the reliability of the sensor increases, and the air stream structure in pneumatic separation system remains steady. The parameters of sound signal arising when grains are hitting against a wall of settling chamber are determined. The researches were conducted with the grains of wheat, rye, oats and barley; the grain moisture content was varied within the range from 12.6 to 35%. The dependencies between the parameters of sound signal arising when grains are hitting against a wall of settling chamber and the grain loss level have been obtained. The operational capability of the sensor was tested on an experimental model of pneumatic separator installed on postharvest grain handling line. The sensor can be adapted for operation in other pneumatic systems of grain-cleaning machines.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):7-11
pages 7-11 views

Operational requirements to STA-5ZhO replaceable technological superstructure for transportation and subsoil application of liquid organic fertilizers based on Ural-432065 vehicle chassis

Shkel' A.S., Kozlovskaya M.A., Dzotsenidze T.D.

Abstract

The development of Ural-432065 specialized all-wheel vehicle chassis with STA-5ZhO replaceable technological superstructure complies with agrotechnical, safe operation and maintenance requirements. Safety requirements and warning descriptions are reflected in the service manual in both text and graphical forms. It is important to study the service manual before using. The relevant symbols are represented on the equipment in locations of working organs and servo units. The Ural-432065 chassis with STA-5ZhO replaceable technological superstructure is intended for transportation and subsoil application of liquid organic fertilizers. The assembly can also be used for community facilities on all types of roads and terrain. The STA-5ZhO superstructure is designed in the form of tank equipped with auxiliary mechanisms with hydraulic drive from the base vehicle chassis. General view of STA-5ZhO superstructure, its specifications, composition, principle of operation, operator control, hydraulic circuit description, electrical schematic diagram, features of operation and service are presented. The adjustment of organic fertilizer consumption at the input of distributor is provided by the installation of plain washer that allows to change the passage area of distributor pipe. Organic fertilizer consumption depends on its density and on the size of plain washer. Operation of STA-5ZhO replaceable technological superstructure for transportation and subsoil application of liquid organic fertilizers based on Ural-432065 vehicle chassis is provided by performance and technology standards, regulated by relevant documents, available and handy to the operator. Design capabilities and used constituent parts allow to increase the operating efficiency of the replaceable superstructure as a part of technological complexes with rise in labor productivity.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):12-16
pages 12-16 views

Influence of accidental load on the effective power of gas-turbine and diesel engines being a part of soil cultivating units

Shkrabak V.S., Dzhabborov N.I., Fed'kin D.S., Shkrabak R.V.

Abstract

The regularities of effective power change of gas-turbine engine (GTD-350T), constant power engine (D-260.4S2) and diesel engine (SMD-62), depending on external load and the coefficient of its variation are investigated. The comparative estimation of efficiency of these engines’ application on tractors in aggregate with soil cultivating machines is carried out; experimental data is received. The methods of mathematical modeling and probabilistic-statistical estimation of the operational parameters of soil cultivating units are applied. The dependencies of extreme values of effective power of abovementioned engines on the shaft torque and coefficient of load variation are obtained. The studies show that the piecewise-linear characteristic of constant power engines is more rational than the piecewise parabolic characteristic of diesel engines. The parabolic characteristic of gas-turbine engines is the most effective one and less sensitive to the fluctuations of external load. The application of gas-turbine engines on tractors meets the technical and technological requirements for agricultural machinery. The gas-turbine engines can improve the competitiveness of domestic tractors by 1.2-1.3 times, reduce the expenditure of labor by 15-20%, increase the productivity of labor on average by 18-22% compared with tractors equipped with diesel engines.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):17-21
pages 17-21 views

Seeds handling by means of separation and joining

Kudi A.N., Dolgunin V.N., Ryabova E.A.

Abstract

The results of research of technological characteristics of a device with rotating drum are analyzed; this device is used as a separator and mixer in the production of seeds of cereals and small-seeded vegetable crops. The seeds handling is organized by means of the separation effects (segregation and migration) of nonuniform particles during their interaction on a gravity chute. The processes of separation and mixing are performed due to the control of segregated flows in the operating volume of device. It is found that separation effects can be used to organize the cleaning of seeds containing hard-separable impurities, and their calibration on size and density at the same time. During cleaning and calibration of carrot seeds the result of their primary handling was the yield of 65% of cleaned seeds; their mass exceeded by 67% the mass of seeds in primary waste. It is also found that the use of particle interaction effects creates the conditions for seeds handling with their minimal damage. The germination of seeds calibrated in accordance with the proposed technique is higher by 5% than the germination of seeds obtained in traditional way. It is shown experimentally that there is a possibility to organize the process of continuous mixing of seeds with dosed supply of microcomponents, the period of which is much larger than the average retention time. The drum device saves the properties of heat and mass transfer equipment (dryer) in all the variants of its technological applications. The selective and goal-oriented control action on a part of material flow in device provides the technological effects without any significant increase of energy consumption.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):21-27
pages 21-27 views

Study of pulse drying of grain in the S-30 dryer

Golubkovich A.V., Pavlov S.A., Lukin I.D.

Abstract

Innovative technologies and technical means of drying which allow to dry the grain efficiently and with minimal costs are very important for development and improvement of grain industry. These technologies include the oscillating modes, the essence of which is that the material is periodically affected by heated and unheated drying agent. These modes provide periodical grain cooling, that allows to increase drying agent temperature and decrease heat losses. However, periodical grain cooling with unheated air often lowers the effect of oscillating mode. Pulse mode, unlike the oscillating one, is characterized only by decreased liquid fuel supply in the dryer, and grain cooling on a value close to theoretical one, which allows to decrease heat losses and increase dryer efficiency. The mathematical methods of calculation of temperature and duration of impact of low-heated drying agent on the grain are suggested. To determine the temperature of low-heated drying agent and its impact duration, the heat and mass transfer equations in layer and caryopsis were composed and solved; the calculated expressions were obtained from them. During acceptance testing of the S-30 dryer, the calculated dependences for determining these parameters were checked. The wet grain was continuously sent into grain dryer, the dried and cooled grain was withdrawn at the same time. The «big fire» nozzle in firebox was periodically enabled and disabled, and the «low fire» nozzle remained in working mode, thus a pulse mode of drying was created. The maximum temperature of heated drying agent was 105 degrees С, while the temperature of low-heated drying agent was 46 degrees С. It was established that curves of changing in temperature and moisture of grain did not differ from the classic curves under oscillating drying mode. The use of pulse drying mode allows to shorten by two times the amplitude of temperature oscillations of drying agent and to reduce heat losses by 10-12%. The temperature of low-heated drying agent should not be below the maximum permissible heating temperature of grain by more than 8-10 degrees C.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):27-30
pages 27-30 views

Substantiation of rational length of hitch frame for a wide-cut cultivator

Nesmiyan A.Y.

Abstract

Surface tillage, including cultivation, is an important component of crop growing technologies. The theory of cultivators is thoroughly studied, but at the same time the choice of hitch frame parameters is reduced to the recommendation of the ratio of working width of cultivator and its kinematic length, approximately equal to 1.3-1.5. This is due to the necessity of stabilizing the movement of cultivator relatively to the direction of tractor motion with the minimal materials consumption. However, theoretical research allowed to substantiate the assumption, that the mentioned recommendation is valid only for modular cultivators. This ratio should be increased for the wide-cut implements. Experimental research has shown that reduction of length of hitch frame of a wide-cut cultivator by 1.4 m (the ratio of working width and kinematic length equal approximately to 1.9) allows to reduce the weight of implement. Moreover, it allows to increase the utilization coefficient of operating time of soil cultivating unit by 4%, as compared with an implement having the length of hitch frame which meets well-established guidelines. Both compared cultivators ensure hundred-per-cent eradication of weeds. Thus, the change of implement parameters does not lead to the increase of probability of its angular displacement in horizontal plane, and to violation of the required degree of overlap of adjacent passes of the tines. The findings suggest that the decrease of kinematic length of agricultural machines and implements leads to the increase of their operation efficiency. An indirect conclusion of that is an assumption about the prospects of development and introduction of wide-cut machines and implements that are compact in the longitudinal direction.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):31-34
pages 31-34 views

General methodological principles for improving the reliability of threaded connections of agricultural machines and implements

Egozhev A.M., Apazhev A.K.

Abstract

From 50 to 70% of failures of working organs and support frames of agricultural machines and implements are accounted for the connections with threaded fasteners. The paper deals with the basic general methodological principles for ensuring the reliability of threaded connections of agricultural machines and implements. The structural scheme of general problem of improving the reliability of threaded connections is proposed. The main ways of improving their reliability are: the development of new designs of threaded connections that meet the above-noticed basic principles; the improvement of the method of calculation of group threaded connections that operate under partial joint opening and contact vibration displacement; the improvement of the method of calculation of group threaded connections that operate under complex loading taking into account the radial and angular contact compliances; the use of numerical methods for calculating of group threaded connections; the improvement of methods of screw retention; the improvement of methods of corrosion protection. The classification of the main factors of fatigue wear failure of threaded connections that operate under complex loading is proposed. The elaboration of fatigue safety factor of connections of agricultural machines is given, depending on the operating conditions, with the use of additional factor which depends on the rate of wear and corrosion. For the expression to determine the degree of fatigue strength on the shear stresses, the uniformity factor of distribution of lateral load between the fasteners is introduced; it depends on the type of connections, constructive gap in the connection and quantity of fasteners. The specified method of calculating the fatigue strength and the proposed basic principles of improving the reliability may be used in the practice of design and repair of agricultural machines.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):35-39
pages 35-39 views

Improvement of agricultural machines reliability by means of controlled tightening

Astakhov M.V., Nikishkina A.B.

Abstract

One of the reasons leading to accidents is the formation of cracks in machine parts. Therefore, when designing it is quite relevant to solve a problem related to the control of internal forces, in order to create adaptive machines which automatically change the stress cycle amplitude in dangerous sections, so that their maximum values don’t exceed the endurance limit. The research objective is to develop the additional groups of elements united in one kinematic chain and fastened on the designed machine; they will change its stress-deformed state in operating time in a way necessary for engineer. The system of additional elements (parts), creating the internal forces which reduce or completely compensate the internal forces from rated external load in the stressed (main) structure at the set time point, can be called the controlled tightening. The paper describes the possibility of use of a three-disk six-rod almost instantly changeable system for creation of high controlled force, with the aim of change of stress-deformed state of the machine framework with a slight controlling torsion torque. According to the results of computer analysis of the stress state of proposed system, the diagrams are built; they show the change of internal forces in rods. The combination of angles is found, that provides the maximum force in each rod, with constant torsion torque and tilt angle of the control rod. The sizes of disks and lengths of rods are matched for the purpose of achievement of maximum controlled force. The conclusion is drawn that it is more preferable to change the controlling torsion torque synchronously with changing of stress level in the most loaded sections of the main machine structure, by transferring of torsion torque on controlled tightening from any rotating shaft of machine by means of checkblocks, or from an element of the machine framework under torsion, by system of torsion bars.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):40-44
pages 40-44 views

To the issues of improvement of grain crops sowing technology

Demchuk E.V., Golovanov D.A., Yankovskiy K.A.

Abstract

The increase in productivity of grain crops is possible as a result of production intensification by improvement of cultivation technology, in particular the most important technological operation of sowing, which lays the foundation for growth and development of cultural plants. The purpose of the research concerns the improvement of technology of grain crops sowing, and improvement of working organs of sowing machines. The scheme of technology of soil conservation farming is presented. It is revealed that high-quality sowing is characterized by two components: the uniform distribution of seed material on the feeding area and depth of seeding, and the application of mineral fertilizers lower than the level of seeds of main crop. The form of rational feeding area is determined; the scheme of rational distribution of seeds on the area is given. The issue of joint and dual-level application of mineral fertilizers when sowing is considered. It is established that joint application of seeds and fertilizers leads to a toxic burn of seeds and decrease in productivity, while dual-level application provides gradual perception of nitrate and promotes the accelerated development of root system. The common faults of most of openers are marked, these are the uneven distribution of seeds on the feeding area, and the application of fertilizers together with seeds on the same depth. The design of a dual-level opener is proposed, providing two-tape sowing with a width of tapes up to 40 mm at a distance between them not less than 80 mm. At the same time, the application of mineral fertilizers is carried out lower than the level of seeds of main crop. The use of proposed opener allows to increase the germinating ability of seeds and, as a consequence, the productivity of cultivated crop.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):45-48
pages 45-48 views

Optimization of duration of winter wheat harvesting by means of a multifunctional unit

Maslov G.G.

Abstract

The article deals with the optimal duration of winter wheat harvesting with the view of decreasing the expenses, reducing the harvest losses and improving the crop quality. By means of modeling and optimization of the TORUM-750-based multifunctional unit with a function of simultaneous straw pressing, the duration of winter wheat harvesting and the operating width of combine header are substantiated. The novelty of this approach to the problem solution is based on the use of new multifunctional unit, combining the harvesting and straw pressing during only one pass across the field. The research of new production process was carried out with the use of mathematical modeling; the minimum of function of expenses and losses was used as the objective function (criterion of optimization). The dependences were obtained, namely the dependence of function of expenses and losses on the duration of wheat harvesting, the dependence of operating width of header of the TORUM-750 combine on the throughput capacity of its threshing machine, on the crop capacity, the straw content in grain mass, the operating speed and the zonation index for the Southern region of Russia. The control-flow chart for optimization of operating process of the multifunctional unit is developed. The analysis of optimization results allows to draw a conclusion that the optimal duration of winter wheat harvesting by means of the TORUM-750-based multifunctional unit with a function of simultaneous straw pressing in the conditions of the Southern region of Russia should be five calendar days; the operating width should be 4.5 m with the crop capacity of 10 t/ha and the operating speed of the unit of 5 km/h. The obtained results allow to estimate a possible use of the function of expenses and losses for substantiation of optimal duration of different crops harvesting.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):48-51
pages 48-51 views

The 75th anniversary of S.G. Kartashov

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Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):51
pages 51 views

In memory of I.A. Dolgov

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Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2016;83(6):52
pages 52 views

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