No 7 (2016)

Articles

Modeling of nitrogen oxides emission in the cylinder of tractor gas-diesel engine

Likhanov V.A., Lopatin O.P.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the modeling of process of nitrogen oxides formation in the cylinder of diesel engine operating on compressed natural gas. The combustion of methane-air mixture, ignited by atomized pilot oil that is injected through multijet nozzle, in the cylinder of gas-diesel engine increases the rate of turbulent fluctuations, which leads to intensification of heat and mass exchange in the plume, and significantly increases the rate of formation and decomposition of nitrogen oxides. The calculation of expected emissions of nitrogen oxides in the cylinder of diesel engine and their content in the exhaust gases is carried out. It is done on the basis of the results of kinetic systems modeling for calculation of the kinetics of nitrogen oxides formation during combustion of natural gas and diesel fuel, taking into account the influence of turbocharging, intermediate cooling of charged air and exhaust gas recirculation. In the mathematical modeling of nitrogen oxide formation in the cylinder of diesel engine, the combustion process is divided into two zones, namely the zone of fresh mixture and the zone of combustion products. First zone is a mixture of fresh air with recycled gases (if there is a process of recycling) and residual gases. Before combustion starts, this zone occupies the whole cylinder. During combustion, the volume of zone of combustion products increases. Theoretical researches are carried out on the basis of developed mathematical model for calculation of nitrogen oxides in the cylinders of 4Ch 11.0/12.5 and 4ChN 11.0/12.5 diesel engines. The high precision of theoretical calculations of volumetric content and mass concentration of nitrogen oxides is confirmed, compared to the results of experimental researches (the difference does not exceed 5%).
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):3-8
pages 3-8 views

Technology of accelerated processing of rough plant raw material and waste

Reznik E.I., Kartashov S.G.

Abstract

Analysis of domestic and foreign experience in obtaining of high-protein feed additives allowed to identify the most important technology and equipment for these purposes. It was revealed that traditional methods of preparation of these feed additives mostly include single-stage chopping and mixing. This is not enough for obtaining of homogeneous granulometric composition of high-quality mixture. The equipment in use has high energy and metal intensity. As a result of the study, innovative equipment is proposed, and physical models are made. The article suggests to use new effective methods of three-stage chopping of plant raw material and its transportation, as well as food waste grinding and two-stage mixing in aqueous media for obtaining homogeneous product. It is recommended to manufacture the equipment in modular construction, that allows to compose the series-produced technical means with new less energy-intensive ones for use on flow line. The main parameters of equipment operating modes are determined. The developed technical means involve the fundamentally new working organs, that provide three-stage chopping of low-value plant materials, their transportation and two-stage mixing with the use of adjustable blades. Such processing of raw material improves the performance characteristics of equipment, and allows to increase the production profitability in comparison with best foreign and domestic equivalents. For supplying of control systems with innovative technologies and equipment, it is recommended to use computer control system, created on the basis of mechatronic systems. Creation of equipment control system and application of new methods of chopping and mixing of rough plant and food waste allow to increase the performance of entire line by 35%, reduce the material and energy intensity by 34-40% with a payback period of 9 months.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):8-13
pages 8-13 views

Substantiation of technology and development of a pick-up chopper for preparation of chopped hay

Abilzhanov D.T.

Abstract

With the use of current technologies of preparation of pressed forage, the losses of valued leaf part of grass plants come up to 14%, which is equivalent to significant losses of total weight of harvested hay. From this perspective, the purpose of the research is to develop a resource-saving technology of preparation of high-quality chopped hay, and to design a pick-up chopper for its implementation. To substantiate the offered technology, the method of system analysis is applied; to develop the structural and technological scheme of universal pick-up chopper, the method of design of agricultural machinery is used. As a result of theoretical researches, the analytical expression is obtained for determination of total yield losses, that are equivalent to the losses of leaf part of forage. The expression is proposed as a new optimization criterion for substantiation of different technologies of forage preparation. To improve the quality of forage and to exclude operations leading to the losses of leaf part of grass plants, a technology of preparation of chopped hay is proposed. Hammer and knife working bodies of a pick-up chopper provide high-quality chopping of dry and wet forage. The machine is equipped with new pick-up mechanism without treadmill, rollers, cranks or bearings for reliable hay picking up. The results of experimental researches allow to determine the following optimal parameters of the machine: the air flow speed in deflector 15 m/s; the rotation speed of pick-up reel 60 rpm; the optimal productivity 8-9 t/h; the losses of chopped forage 1.83%. The performance tests of a pick-up chopper equipped with hammer mill and new pick-up mechanism showed that it provides the preparation of high-quality chopped hay with reduction of operating costs by 2 times as compared to the roll technology of forage preparation.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):14-18
pages 14-18 views

Speed energy-saving cultivator

Rudenko N.E., Kayvanov S.D., Zavyalik F.N.

Abstract

A-hoe blades consisting of a share and a frog are used as working organs of cultivators. Main characteristics of share are the expansion angle of blades and the crumbling angle. For falling away of cut weed, the expansion angle should not exceed 70 degrees. The higher crumbling angle provides more intensive effect on the soil. There are also negative effects in working process: soil displacement aside, formation of grooves, removal of moist soil to the daylight surface. As far as copying elements of cultivator are separated by a distance from working organs, the variability of operating depth is increased. The article proposes a working organ combining copying and work functions, that allows to maintain precisely the operating depth. Flat share with crumbling angle equal to zero is used as a copying element. Spiral made as compression spring is used as a tillage tool; it is mounted on the back edge of share. Its diameter is 50-60 mm; the diameter of wire is 3-4 mm. During operation, the share with frog moves over the surface without casting-off the soil. The spirals loosen the soil and create the aggregate structure of topsoil. The turns of spiral affect the soil clods by spring tension and dramatically reduce the energy consumption. Working organs are mounted on plough beams made from leaf springs and ensure constant retention of spiral in the soil. Without casting-off the soil, the cultivator is able to work at the speed of 4-5 m/s, which significantly improves its performance. The performance gain is obtained not by extension of grasp width, which is related to the increase in materials consumption, but due to speed increase.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):18-21
pages 18-21 views

Improvement of starting characteristics of a diesel engine with low compression ratio by using of inlet electric air heaters

Bondar' V.N., Malozemov A.A., Kukis V.S.

Abstract

The paper deals with the improvement of starting characteristics of diesel engine with low compression ratio. The processes in inlet manifold and cylinder of diesel engine during pre-start preparation and start-up are submitted as the subject of study. The purpose is to improve the starting characteristics of diesel engine with low compression ratio by using of inlet electrical air heaters instead of electric torch device. The object of study is a modification of tractor constant power engine of 4ChN 15/20.5 type with low compression ratio equal to 12.5. During the experiment one electric torch device and three tubular electric heaters with heat power of 0.8 kW each were sequentially installed in the inlet manifold of diesel engine. A calculation method for heat transfer from the surface of inlet manifold to the ambient air is proposed. Conditions of fuel self-ignition in the combustion chamber of diesel engine with electric torch device are theoretically substantiated, as well as its critical shortcomings, namely: raise of temperature of fuel self-ignition due to the decrease in oxygen concentration of air charge in cylinders, as a result of its consumption in the flame of electric torch device; ability to work only during engine cranking by electric starter with a limited timespan of 20 seconds. It is proved that a valid method providing the cold starting of 4ChN 15/20.5 diesel engine with low compression ratio equal to 12.5 is air preheating by tubular electric heaters placed throughout the length of inlet manifold, with total heat power of 1.6-2.4 kW. Rational design parameters of a cold start aid system with tubular electric heaters and its operation modes are determined. The results of the study were used for modernization of production models of ChTZ-Uraltrac tractor diesel engines and for development of new ones, so they can be recommended for introduction in engine building companies.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):22-26
pages 22-26 views

Mathematical model of oriented planting of bulbs with bulb stem pointing downwards

Aksenov A.G., Sibirev A.V., Emel'yanov P.A.

Abstract

Theoretical studies are carried out on the substantiation of design and technological parameters of vibration and pneumatic planting unit of a bulb-planting machine, and of a disc coverer with soil deflectors. The subject of research is the process of oriented planting and embedding of seed onion bulbs into soil. The article considers the process of bulbs orienting during planting and their orientation maintaining during interaction with the soil, taking into account the regularities of bulbs motion by means of vibrating chute and pneumatic drum, as well as the work of coverers during covering of bulbs with soil. The research is done on the basis of laws of classical mechanics and Lagrange's equations of the second kind. Theoretical studies of the working process of vibration and pneumatic planting unit of a bulb-planting machine are carried out. As a result, analytical dependences are obtained for determination of its design and operational parameters: the groove radius, the distance between chute and groove bottom, the diameter of suction opening, the rotation speed of pneumatic drum, the height of planting unit installation above the soil level. The studies allowed to determine: the condition of oriented embedding of bulbs into furrow with bulb stem pointing downwards; the analytical dependences for determining the trajectory of soil particles motion on the working surface of deflector of a disc coverer; the equation of soil particles motion after detachment from deflector’s surface, during covering with soil of bulbs oriented in furrow with bulb stem pointing downwards; the equations of relative, transfer and absolute velocities of soil particles. The expressions are obtained that allow to determine the technological parameters of disc coverer with soil deflectors: the forward velocity of disc coverer, the angle of attack, the center distance between discs.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):26-31
pages 26-31 views

Results of experimental studies of mixing process in a horizontal ribbon mixer

Savinykh P.A., Turubanov N.V., Zyryanov D.A.

Abstract

The performance of livestock farms and complexes largely depends on the quality of feed preparation for feeding. It is proved that feeding efficiency is increased with the use of feed mixtures in the diet, which allows to increase animal performance, to reduce feeding period and feed consumption per production unit. Despite of the wide use of different types of mixers, their working process is understudied, and therefore the study of influence of design and technological parameters of mixers on the quality characteristics of mixture is the crucial task. The aim of the study is the improvement of technological process of feed mixtures preparation in a horizontal ribbon mixer by improving quality of mixing and reducing energy intensity of working process. Experimental studies of a horizontal ribbon mixer were carried out in the laboratory of mechanization of animal husbandry at the Zonal Research Institute of Agriculture of the North-East. For the studies, the mixture consisting of a basis (80% of barley and 20% of rye) and a control component (pea) was used. The implementation of multifactorial experiment allows to obtain approximate mathematical models of the process, that link together all the factors taken into account. Experimental studies allow to determine the numerical values of coefficients of regression equations, by which it is possible to assess the degree of influence of relevant factors. During the tests, Box-Behnken design matrix was implemented. According to the results, the maximum value of the uniformity coefficient of finished product is 86,1%, which meets the zootechnical requirements for feeding of cattle and poultry, and is achieved in the presence of 620 kg of basis and 146 kg of control component in the mixture. The mixing time is 4 minutes, and the throughput capacity of mixer is 5,75 t/h, when the specific energy consumption is 1,55 kilowatt-hours per ton.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):32-36
pages 32-36 views

Influence of ploughshare design and welding reinforcement on the hardness of its nose part

Denisov V.A., Kozhukhova N.Y., Orekhova G.V., Mikhal'chenkova M.A.

Abstract

The hardness of working surface of ploughshares is very significant for their abrasive wear resistance. Knowing this mechanical property is especially important for manufacturing and hardening of ploughshares, since their wear is not uniform. In this regard, the research problems include studying of hardness distribution in the most loaded nose part of ploughshare, depending on its design and on welding reinforcement as a hardening method. Ploughshares after reinforcement and ploughshares in as-delivered condition after their taking out of service are submitted as objects of the research. Reinforcement included bead welding in the area of share point perpendicularly to the leading edge with the pitch of 30-40 mm. The validity of results was provided by measurement of four parts on each object of research. The total number of tested ploughshares was eight. Hardness was measured with a mobile hardness gage. Measurement results were recorded on Rockwell hardness scale (HRC) with subsequent conversion to Brinell hardness (HB). It is shown that for ploughshares without hardening, the hardness distribution in considered part has the non-uniform character, that is caused by the non-uniformity of processes of recrystallization because of unequal thickness of walls in separate volumes of a product. The hardness values of ploughshares in as-delivered condition are not high (230 HB maximum) and cannot provide the proper abrasive wear resistance. The lowered value of hardness (175 HB) is noted on the deepening part of a ploughshare. Application of welding reinforcement increases hardness (by 200 HB on the deepening part), that is connected with manifestation of heat hardening due to the formation of hardening structures. Traces of reinforcing beads make positive impact on the increase in hardness, which contributes to the growth of abrasive wear resistance.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):36-40
pages 36-40 views

Efficiency evaluation of machine and tractor fleet based on multipurpose power vehicles with sets of replaceable modules in conditions of the South of Russia

Bur'yanov A.I., Dmitrenko A.I., Goryachev Y.O.

Abstract

In recent years, some foreign companies pay special attention to development and creation of multipurpose power vehicles supplied with sets of replaceable technology adapters. The North Caucasus Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Electrification in cooperation with Gomselmash presented a constructive layout diagram of multipurpose power vehicle. Its principal differences are the replacement of technology adapters by means of mechanism mounted on power vehicle, and the possibility of straight-flow moving of processed material in harvesting modules. The efficiency of multipurpose power vehicle is straightly correlated with its annual utilization, that depends on natural-climatic conditions defining the structure of crop areas, the technologies and the period of operations. The efficiency of multipurpose power vehicle according to state standard is evaluated by application to the conditions of typical farm. The research objective is the technical and economic evaluation of functioning of machine and tractor fleets formed with production machines in basic version, and with production machines and multipurpose power vehicles developed for the subzones of regions of the South of Russia - in new version. Evaluation is made with the use of a developed mathematical model of optimization of technological complexes and machine and tractor fleets in general. The introduction into machine and tractor fleet of multipurpose power vehicles with complexes of replaceable modules meant for subzones of regions of the South of Russia will allow to reduce the operational costs of entire set of works of field crop cultivation by 12.4-20.6% and the cost of machine fleet by 17.5-29%; reduce the relative energy consumption that accounts for 100 hectares by 28.3-38.1% and the relative material consumption by 16.5-33.4%; increase the net present value by 31.8-246%. For reducing the costs of fuel and lubrication materials, the ballasting of chassis during energy-intensive works and use of variable-power engine are proposed.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):41-46
pages 41-46 views

Study of technology of liquid organic fertilizers application by a transport-technological unit for agricultural purposes

Shkel' A.S., Kozlovskaya M.A., Dzotsenidze T.D.

Abstract

Operation of a transport-technological unit allows to reduce the labour inputs and to increase the performance by means of increasing transportation speed and improving maneuverability. Transport-technological units are created on the basis of specialized Ural-432065 vehicle chassis. The article reviews the features of technological process of transportation and subsoil application of liquid organic fertilizers performed by the STA-5ZhO replaceable technological superstructure. In the development of process technology of fertilizer application, statistical data of the Federal register of process technologies for crop production are used. Every process operation requires compliance with certain rules, that are listed in the process technology, which is a science-based technology of performance of specific works or operations, ensuring the efficient use of units in the given soil and climatic and operating conditions. Developed process technologies for transportation and subsoil application of liquid organic fertilizers under given conditions contain grounded recommendations on: agrotechnical requirements, preparing of units and field for operation, organization of units work, quality control, labor and nature protection. The results of the studies show that mushroom-shaped turns with open (or closed) lap and straight way are the most preferred. The design and development of transport-technological unit with STA-5ZhO replaceable technological superstructure for transportation and subsoil application of liquid organic fertilizers based on specialized all-wheel drive Ural-432065 vehicle chassis allow to provide a high level of performing of process operations while reducing cost of operations and increasing economic efficiency. This type of transport-technological unit is distinguished by high performance, easy-to-use, and its design features ensure compliance with the environmental requirements.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):47-51
pages 47-51 views

The 80th anniversary of I.T. Kovrikov

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Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):51-52
pages 51-52 views

In memory of V.S. Safronov

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Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(7):52
pages 52 views

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