No 1 (2019)


Experimental test bench for the study of a power plant with a biogas internal combustion engine

Boloev P.A., Druz'yanova V.P., Petrov N.V.


Biogas is an alternative source of energy, now it can also be used as a motor fuel for gasoline engines of internal combustion with spark ignition. This article describes the biogas obtained by processing cattle manure. The obtained biogas was enriched and compressed to the level of natural gas. A schematic diagram of the experimental test bench for the study of automotive biogas engine is given. A description of the measuring instruments used in this experimental test bench is shown. In this paper, the task is to create an automated test bench for the study of the workflow of the engine, which works on biogas. To select and justify the parameters of the workflow, a full range of instrumentation is needed, which satisfies the following requirements: the ability to work on gasoline and biogas; the ability to control the composition of the working mixture, both when working on gasoline and biogas; the possibility of forced control of the value of ignition advance angle; measurement of the moment of resistance on the motor shaft in the whole range of rotational speed variation (n = 800…5590 min-1); registration of pressure in the engine cylinder (indicator diagram) with the subsequent determination of indicator characteristics; registration of air and fuel consumption; maintaining a stable temperature mode of the engine. In addition, an automated research system should provide for the collection of experimental data for on-line processing and for the collection of a database. The use of biogas as a fuel for gasoline internal combustion engines will save natural resources and improve the ecological and economic status of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and whole Russia.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):3-8
pages 3-8 views

The results of experimental studies of digging plow for onions

Sibiryov A.V., Aksenov A.G.


The high-quality work of the harvesting machines, both in two-phase and single-phase methods of harvesting, is ensured by satisfactory preparation of the field before harvesting. Even an insignificant con-tent of plant matter (free tops, weeds) of 2...4 % (according to agrotechnical requirements - up to 5 %) makes the heap unsuitable neither for sale nor for storage. The quality of the technological process of the operation of the onion harvesting machine is determined by the work of the digging tool body, since, de-pending on the type and technological parameters of this tool body, the structural and technological pa-rameters of the separating devices depend. The design of the lifting plowshare for harvesting root crops and onions of the onion harvesting machine is presented. The proposed lifting plowshare for harvesting root crops and onions due to pre-separation of onions from soil lumps, commensurate in size with the bulbs, improves the quality performance of the harvesting bodies, resulting in a decrease in the flow of soil lumps to the harvesting bodies. The results of studies of the lifting plowshare for harvesting root crops and onions to determine the supply of a pile of onions to the lifting plowshare depending on changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the soil and technological parameters (depth of digging and translational speed of movement) of the depending on changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the soil and technological parameters (depth of digging and translational speed of movement) of the working body under investigated working body are shown. The technique and the equipment used for research were explained. The results of the research are presented in the form of graphical dependencies; the analysis of the research was carried out by the method of variation statistics.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):9-15
pages 9-15 views

Seeder with openers for sowing grain and multi-level application of mineral fertilizers

Kem A.A.


The production of grain crops forms the basis of not only crop production, but also the entire agricul-tural production. The intensification of production is one of the main measures to increase the yield of cultivated crops. Existing designs of sowing machines do not always meet agrotechnical requirements. Fertilization when sown together with seeds in one row, due to the risk of salt effect and toxic effects of mineral fertilizers, leads to the death of seedlings and, accordingly, to a reduction in field germination and, as a consequence, a decrease in yield. Therefore, the most effective is separate from the seeds of multi-level application of mineral fertilizers. We have developed a combined coulter, which performs two line sowing of grain with a sieving width of 50 mm with a distance between lines of 80 mm, with simultaneous introduction of a starting dose of fertilizers, while mineral fertilizers are placed below the seed level by 0,04 m, which eliminates contact between the seeds and fertilizer when sowing. A two-year comparative field research of factor work of seed drills with serial coulters SKP-2,1 and SKP-2,1M with converted coulters for multi-level sowing and mineral fertilizers showed that the planter with experimental coulters more evenly seals seeds at a depth of 5,40 cm with a standard deviation of 0,48 cm, while at the sowing of a serial seeder this figure was 6,13 cm and 0,66 cm. When sowing with a seeder with combined coulters, the average field germination of soft spring wheat was 94,1 %, against 80 % when sowing with a serial seeder. For all sowing options with both drills and simultaneous introduction of a starting dose of fertilizers with different rates of 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha, an increase in the yield of wheat grain was obtained on average from 9 to 22 % in comparison with the sowing without fertilizer. A substantial increase in grain yield of 0,52 t/ha or 22 % was obtained with the introduction of a starting dose of mineral fertilizers 150 kg/ha with a seeder with openers for multi-level placement of fertilizers in comparison with the control sowing without fertilizers.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):16-20
pages 16-20 views

Justification of the parameters of the unit for combining the sowing operations and the introduction of polymer hydrogel in the soil

Revenko V.Y.


One of the ways to preserve crops in areas of insufficient moisture is the incorporation into the soil absorbents that that help preserve moisture in the root zone of the soil. In recent years, polymer hydrogels have been used as absorbents that can absorb moisture in a volume that is a thousand times larger than the volume of polymer granules. However, the issues of practical use of hydrogels in field crop rotations are currently insufficiently developed. The article presents the materials of three-year studies on the physical properties of polymer hydrogels and their interaction with plant material. On the basis of the data obtained, the substantiation of the design and technological parameters of the unit for the complex application of seeds and dry polymer granules into the soil is given. According to the results of the practical use of various machines that combine sowing and introduction of absorbent into the soil, a variant of the machine-tractor unit with the use of a selection seeder of precise sowing with microprocessor control is proposed. Four metering hoppers of drum-blade type were mounted on the seeder. The design of the dispenser included: a rotating gear, a worm gear and a 12-volt electric motor. The dosage of the polymer absorbent was made from the operator's seat, with the help of PWM-motor speed controller. The presence in the configuration of the seeder 4 tyne coulters and 4 double-disc coulters are allowed using the first set for sowing seeds, and the second - for introducing a hydrogel into the soil to a predetermined depth.Constant monitoring of moisture in the meter layer of soil showed that the incorporation the polymer hydrogel into the soil contributed to an increase of moisture saturation of the root zone, reducing moisture losses for physical evaporation, and a decrease in its gravity flow to the underlying layers. The field tests of the modernized seeder showed that its use in areas of unstable moistening can increase the yield of soybeans by 5,5-12 %, depending on the amount of precipitation. Especially effective is the use of this machine in breeding and seed production, in order to provide optimal moisture conditions for vegetation of plants in hybrid and breeding nurseries.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):21-26
pages 21-26 views

The development of the technical concept of the tractor

Kut'kov G.M.


The development of the technical concept of an agricultural wheeled tractor is analyzed depending on the continuous growth of its energy saturation, as an indispensable factor in raising the technical level. The technological properties and methods of aggregating tractors of three generations of energy saturation called traction, traction energy and energy concepts, are considered. At present, in the world tractor construction, tractors of the traction concept are almost out of production; tractors of power traction and, to a lesser extent, energy concepts, are mainly produced. Tractors of the second generation differ from tractors of the first generation that they include ballast in a factory complete set. Ballasting has become a necessary way to artificially increase the weight of the tractor and reduce its energy saturation due to the limitation of the speed of technological operations, introduced by the rules of agricultural engineering. It is assumed that in the foreseeable future this restriction will not be removed. Even now, ballasting as a way to compensate for the weight loss of the tractor has almost exhausted its possibilities, because ballast weights reach half of the tractor weight and more. As the tractor continues to increase its energy saturation and maintains limitations on the speed of technological operations, the ballasting will require replacement. The article proposes instead of ballasting the use of a third movable axle and a block-modular aggregation system, as well as the use of electric transmission on the third-generation tractors and an active drive to the motor-wheel of agricultural machinery. It is shown that the second generation tractors have potential technological properties that can be implemented under the condition of competent and easy to operate maneuvering level of ballasting. In general, the use of tractors of the second and third generations of traction energy and energy concepts will significantly reduce: the material intensity of machine tractor unit; fuel consumption; the harmful effects of tractor propellers on the soil, variability (the difference of tractors in terms of the nominal tractive force on the hook) of tractors in the economy.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):27-35
pages 27-35 views

The balance of the diamond-shaped plow in the horizontal plane

CHupin P.V., Soyunov A.S., Golovin A.Y., Kirasirov O.M., Demchuk E.V.


Diamond-shaped plow, opening the furrow with an inclined wall, reduces the area of the side support, which gives rise to the problem of maintaining a stable course of the plow. At the same time, the wider groove of the diamond-shaped case allows the energy-saturated tractor to move the right wheels on it and thereby shift the line of the plow thrust to the right, which in turn unloads the side support and reduces the traction resistance of the plow. Replacing field boards on all cases with a common field board installed on the last case changes the location of the balancing reaction of the furrow wall and its size and, as a result the plow’s traction resistance also changes. In the vertical plane of the projections, this corresponds to the displacement of the friction force of the field board along the line of action. In a diamond case, due to a different shape of the cut layer, the point of application of the resultant soil pressure on it is shifted in a horizontal plane closer to the toe of the plowshare compared to a conventional case. The studied dia-mond-shaped plow is hung on the tractor in a two-point scheme with the passage of the horizontal projection of the central rod through the point of attachment of the lower rods to the tractor. This point is the in-stantaneous center of rotation of the plow in the horizontal plane. When considering the plow scheme with field boards, identical on all cases (production), we will conditionally present it with one field board on the middle case, which facilitates the theoretical analysis. The continuous change in time of the forces acting on the working and additional bodies is a specific feature of the working conditions of agricultural units. On this basis, these efforts are considered as stationary random functions of time, and for studying dynamic objects under their influence, they use a statistical method based on the concepts of the theory of stationary random processes.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):36-40
pages 36-40 views

The influence of the number of axles of wheeled transport traction machines on rolling resistance

SHilo I.N., Romanyuk N.N., Orda A.N., Kushnir V.G.


The process «deformation - compaction - decomposition - accumulation of soil compaction» depends both on the operating conditions of the equipment and on the changing properties of the soil depending on its type, agricultural background and periods of the year. Since the main part of energy losses during movement across the field of machine-tractor units is spent on the formation of tracks, it is very important to establish the influence of the number of wheel passes on changes in the rolling resistance force. It is necessary to substantiate the pattern of change in the rolling resistance force on the number of wheel passes on the track in various soil conditions. This will make it possible to identify promising ways to im-prove the design of the undercarriage systems, in particular, to justify the number of axles of wheeled transport and traction machines. The article obtained a graphical dependence of the rolling resistance force of the wheeled suspension system on the number of axles for highly hardening soil. The influence of the parameters of the vehicle's wheel drive system on rolling resistance on heavily hardened soil is ana-lyzed. The rolling resistance at repeated passes of the wheels on weakly hardening soils is determined. The dependences of the rolling resistance force on wheels on the number of tracks on the track for various states of the bearing surface are substantiated. The variants of strongly hardening and weakly hardening soils are considered. Experimental studies of the multi-axle wheel travel traction properties were carried out on a mechanical model in the soil channel. The proposed patterns of change in the rolling resistance force during repeated wheel passes on the track take into account the type and condition of the soil. Increasing the number of axles contributes to lower rolling resistance.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):41-46
pages 41-46 views

Road tests of an electromechanical wheel tractor motion control systemctor

Poddubny V.I., Nenaydenko A.S., Baybasarov R.R.


Precision farming systems implementation is one of the most efficient ways to increase labour productivity in agriculture. Key elements of such systems include auxiliary thrust devices and auto-piloting systems. Altai State Technical University specialists conduct researches to develop vehicle wheelbase motion control systems for farm vehicles featuring satellite radio navigation systems. One of the most important parts of those research projects takes place during system testing in real road conditions. At the initial stages of the research, the structure of the firmware of the electromechanical control system was developed and its laboratory testing was carried out in real time mode. The control system consists of: brushless motor with a control unit, DAC/ADC device, navigation receiver, steering angle sensor and PC with a control program. On-road test of the control system were on the tractor MTZ-1221.2. Required trajectories had been set up before the experiment with a radio navigation receiver GLONASS/GPS. After that, the vehicle was directed along the trajectories with an electromechanical control system. On-road tests have confirmed a reasonably good efficiency of the developed system. On a rectilinear trajectory, at an average speed of 1,5 m/s maximum error made 0,23 m, standard deviation made 0,09 m. On a curved trajectory, at an average speed of 1,3 m/s maximum error made 0,61 m, standard deviation made 0,27 m. In future it is planned testing of the developed electromechanical system under actual operating conditions during the field work.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):47-52
pages 47-52 views

Research of dynamics of movement of grain and forage harvesters by methods of mathematical and imitating modeling

Sirotin P.V., ZHilejkin M.M.


The mathematical model of the grain and forage harvester movement is considered, the possibility of its algorithmization in the program complex is shown, and also the data confirming its adequacy are given. The mathematical model includes dynamic and kinematic equations of coupling angular and linear velocities with angular and spatial coordinates. The peculiarity of the model is the use of a set of coordinate systems, which allowed to take into account not only the mass and size features of the type of machines being studied, but also the nature of the interaction of the elastic wheel with the damped base. In the above model, the speed of the combine's movement is determined not by force change in the coordinate of the center of mass of the body, but is formed by modeling the process of interaction between the driving wheels and the support base. This approach provides a more adequate description of the process of curvilinear movement of the combine, allows modeling the car's starting, acceleration, braking, overcoming obstacles, skid and skid processes taking into account the characteristics of the tire and the coupling properties of the ground. The adopted approach provides sufficient accuracy of the model with a minimum set of factors and requirements for computation. Based on the developed mathematical model, a model is created in the simulink simulation environment of the MATLAB software package. Experimental and calculated data obtained as a result of imitation modeling are presented. A comparison of the operating forces and the spectral densities of acceleration in the main parts of the combine showed sufficient convergence of the results. The revealed inaccuracy is caused by the discrepancy between the numerical description of the supporting surface and the test road, the representation of the skeleton as an absolutely rigid body, the differences in the elastic-viscous properties of the tires. Conclusions are drawn and directions for further research providing for improving the operational properties of self-propelled combines by means of wheel suspension systems and working elements are determined.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):53-59
pages 53-59 views

Frictional steering devices in two-flow transmissions of transport caterpillar vehicles

Demidov N.N., Dobretsov R.Y., Medvedev M.S.


The problem of quality of management of turn is the general for tracked vehicles of different function, especially for high-speed transport vehicles. Usually, this problem is solved application of two-flow transmission with use of hydrostatic gear in a parallel flow of power with the transforming mechanism (the central or onboard gearboxes). In the article is offered to use the frictional steering device as a part of the closed-loop (servo) control system as an alternative to hydrostatic gear. To control over effort of compression and, respectively, slipping of disks of the frictional steering device applies the principle of pulse-width modulation of power pressure. Assessment of power dissipation capability on the slipping element of management of the frictional steering device installed in transmission of the tracked vehicle with onboard gearboxes weighing 42 tons is carried out. It is established that at the most probable turning radius power dissipation capability doesn't exceed 50 kW. Besides, in article kinematic schemes of the one-stage and two-level frictional steering device are provided. The one-stage frictional steering device was tested on ride tests of the tracked vehicle with onboard gearboxes, its application is limited to one rated turning radius and high loading of frictional elements. Use of the two-level steering device will allow to reduce wear of disks of elements of management and smoother turn, in comparison with one-stage, but will complicate a design a little. The scheme of two-line transmission with the central gearbox is also provided. It is expected that the power disseminated on the frictional steering device will be higher, than when using in transmission with onboard gearboxes. Thus, calculations and tests show that frictional steering devices are capable to replace hydrostatic gear in the steering device of the tracked vehicle, especially in the conditions of dense configuration of transmission department where other options are still impossible.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):60-69
pages 60-69 views

Determination of lateral tire drag coefficients to achieve the required performance characteristics of machine-tractor unit

Sergeev N.V., Sen'kevich S.E.


This article considers the possibility of determining by analytical calculations such indicators of the drag coefficients for lateral removal of the pneumatic tires of the front and rear wheels of a tractor, at which acceptable traction characteristics of the tractor, the required performance of the unit and the provision of a given trajectory movement of the unit will be provided. Developed by Mstislav Keldysh theory of the rolling of a pneumatic wheel gives the most appropriate model of lateral slip. With an unsteady lateral slip, the center of the contact imprint describes a trajectory called the tire rolling line. If there is no slip, the middle line of the tread within the contact area, coincides with the rolling line. So in the vicinity of the center of the site, its absolute speed and angular velocity of this area equals zero. And the curvature of these coincident lines is determined by the lateral and angular deformations of the tire. For the practical implementation of the adopted design models of the tire, it is necessary in the equations to determine the ratio of the curvature coefficients and the magnitude of the slip function. Experimental studies of a tilled unit with a blocked cultivator sample are given.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):70-74
pages 70-74 views

System studies of the preparation of protein feed

Priporov I.E.


The purpose of the study is to determine the direction of development of system studies of the prepa-ration of protein feed. System analysis of the preparation of protein feed is carried out by dividing the sys-tem into subsystems of different levels (process lines) and elements (technical devices), which will allow to outline the stages of research and to construct their classification. In the scientific systems theory, we will follow the path of «exact technology of animal husbandry», which was considered by academician Leonid Kormanovsky, built on the basis of mathematical models obtained as a result of theoretical studies (analysis) and experimentally (empirically). In turn, the "exact technology of animal husbandry" should be based on the technical systems of the mathematical model and specific technical developments of devices and technologies for the preparation of protein feed. For the preparation of protein feed in the free running and granular types in order to reduce the energy intensity of the process and improve its quality, the line for its implementation under patent No. 2646092 and the method according to patent No. 2636480 were developed. The design and technological process of its work are given. A system for the preparation of protein feed was developed on the basis of the general theory of systems. The analysis in this area showed the absence of systemic studies on the preparation of protein feed based on the general theory of the system as applied to «accurate technology of animal husbandry», namely, in «accurate technology of preparation of protein feed» using a multimedia device that controls the process. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a mathematical model based on the theory of the general system with respect to the exact technology of preparation of protein feed. The developed mathematical model allowed to increase the nutritional value of protein feed, as well as to expand their range for feeding cattle, namely for each species of agricultural animal with its physiological peculiarity and need for them, and to improve the environment ecology.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):75-80
pages 75-80 views

Regression mathematical model of two-stage combined electrical technology of high-temperature convective drying and ozone-air grain processing

Pahomov V.I., Gazalov V.S., Buhancov K.N.


Large production of cereal crops in Russia in 2014-2018 (100-130 million tons) imply the need to dry 10-30 % of the crop collected annually in the country to ensure its quantitative and qualitative preser-vation. The main way to reduce the excess moisture of grain in the Russian Federation is high-temperature convective drying, but it refers to very energy-intensive technological operations and, therefore, is very expensive. In the context of the constant increase in energy prices in the Russian economy, the country's agricultural producers face the primary task of increasing the profitability of the grain industry, within which it is necessary to reduce material costs at all stages of production, including through the creation of new high-intensity energy-saving technologies and technical means for drying grain raw materials. The authors have developed a two-stage technology of high-temperature convective and ozone-air grain drying that meets these requirements. In the article, based on the analysis of the parametric scheme of the convective-ozone-air moisture removal method, compiled taking into account the conditions and possibilities of conducting experimental studies of the process at the industrial drying unit «ELEKTA-1» of small productivity, the optimization parameters of this process are defined, which are: reduction of the drying time and the total reduction in energy consumption, in addition, the main factors varied in the ex-periments are highlighted: the initial moisture content of the grain, the amount of ozone supply to 1 m3 of grain and time spent on moisture removal. Second-order regression mathematical models for the convec-tive-ozone-air drying of barley grain with different initial humidity (30, 25 and 20 %) have been developed and their statistical significance has been evaluated. An analysis of the experimental data of the combined drying options studied at 6 % moisture removal for one cycle of processing the grain material revealed the following parameters of the efficiency of the methods of convective ozone-air moisture removal: when drying grain with an initial humidity of 30 %, the process duration decreased by 28 % and the total energy consumption decreased amounted to 33-43 %; when drying grain with a moisture content of 25 %, the duration of the process is reduced by 19 %, energy consumption by 24-35 %; and when drying grain with a moisture content of 20 %, the duration of the process is reduced by 30-35 %, energy consumption by 35-40 %.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(1):81-95
pages 81-95 views

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