No 4 (2020)

Articles

Specifics of certification of agricultural tires with maximum consideration of their operating conditions

Goncharenko S.V., Godzhaev Z.A., Pryadkin V.I., Artyomov A.V., Godzhaev T.Z.

Abstract

The problems of product quality and competitiveness are typical in the modern world. The international market constantly demands the improvement of the performance properties of automobiles, tractors, agricultural machinery and other types of mobile vehicles. At the same time, they can not be increased without significant improving of the tire performance characteristics. Pneumatic tires are among the critical units of mobile vehicles that have a significant impact on the following performance properties; therefore, as a complex product, they were included in the list of approval in accordance with Regulation No 106 for agricultural vehicles and their trailers. The purpose of the research was to develop recommendations for improving the methodology of conducting certification tests of agricultural tires aimed at improving product quality. The article discusses the methods of certification and approval of tires for agricultural vehicles and their trailers. The drawbacks of the method of certification of agricultural tires using the method of automobile ones are analyzed. It is proposed to supplement the certification with test methods developed in the Russian Federation that are as close as possible to the operating conditions of agricultural vehicles and tires of traction machines. The experience of work of “Bridgestone” and “Michelin” companies in the Russian Federation is presented. The absence of a national tire certification system in Russia influence in many cases vehicle breakdowns, which lead to downtime, as well as to the occurrence of accidents. In case of serious accidents in transport, when there is insufficient clarity of the causes of the accident or it is clear that the accident is related to tire failure, the victims initiate legal proceedings against the manufacturers, involving the payment of monetary compensation. At the same time, mass production defects are usually hidden behind the losses of consumers. To improve the quality of agricultural tires, it is proposed to revise UN/ECE Regulation No 106 as close as possible to operating conditions, as well as to create an independent accredited tire center.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2020;(4):3-11
pages 3-11 views

Analysis of the current level of technology and engineering development of coolant filtration in automotive and tractor engines

Dragomirov S.G., Dragomirov M.S., Eydel P.I., Gamayunov A.Y.

Abstract

The article analyzes modern technologies and means of filtering (cleaning) the coolant of automobile and tractor engines. A critical and still unresolved problem of contamination of the coolant and engine cooling systems in general is considered. A general assessment of existing filtration technologies and devices is given. All filtration devices are divided into three groups and an analysis of their principal disadvantages and advantages is given for each of the groups. It is shown that foreign filter designs do not perform the filtration function so much as they serve as carriers of special chemical additives to improve the physical and chemical properties of coolant. In principle, these filters cannot be full-flow, because if they are completely clogged, the circulation of coolant will stop. In general, technologies for filtering of coolant through porous materials (microporous cardboard, chemical fibers) or metal grids cannot be considered promising. This is justified by the fact that in the process of cleaning the coolant, filter elements of this type quickly become clogged and significantly reduce the amount of coolant passed. In the extreme case, they stop passing coolant at all. Also, due to rapid contamination, such filters need to be replaced or cleaned. A new concept of a modified hydrocyclone coolant cleaning and a hydrocyclone filter-separator developed on its basis (protected by the RF patent for invention No. 2625891) are considered. The comparison of competitive indicators of the developed hydrocyclone filter-separator with foreign analogues is given. Hydrocyclone filter-separators have a lof of fundamental advantages: high productivity and continuous operation; extremely simple design; the absence of the filter element itself, etc. The conclusion is made about the prospects of this approach to solving the problem of cleaning the coolant of engines of cars, buses, tractors, road construction and forestry machines, agricultural and army equipment, etc.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2020;(4):12-20
pages 12-20 views

Design characteristics of an armored tractor for hot climate

Semenov A.G.

Abstract

The article discusses issues related to the field of tractor construction, specifically to tracked and wheeled tractors equipped with various attachments that perform earthmoving, loading, transport and other works in industrial and road construction in special conditions that require additional cooling of the power compartment and protection of the operator and the main components of the machinery from the bullets and shrapnel. Not every serial tractor and machinery based on it (including the engineering ones) is suitable for operation in the special conditions of countries with hot climates, especially in conditions of war or its consequences (undetected and not neutralized mines, unexploded bombs, etc.). The aim of the work is to link the known measures of strengthening the standard cooling system of the engine compartment of an armored tractor with its armor protection, excluding, at least, the negative consequences of such “heat engineering recipes” for the operational safety of the tractor driver mainly, and thereby improve the technical and operational characteristics of armored tractor. The proposed options make it possible to improve the technical and operational characteristics of the armored tractor through the use of such arrangement of the considered components of the tractor (the cabin with operator's workplace, the power compartment, limited by the hood, and the heat exchange hatch), that allow to meet the maximum requirements, which are a visibility from the cabin and protection of the cabine from weapons that fall into the cover. The results obtained seem to be a sufficient basis for an optimistic forecast of the implementation of this development in the existing technological structure of the domestic economy.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2020;(4):21-26
pages 21-26 views

Analysis of the operation of a flat sieve that vibrates in a horizontal plane

Golovin A.Y., Sabiyev U.K., Chupin P.V., Soyunov A.S., Prokopov S.P.

Abstract

In accordance with the provisions of the Food security Doctrine of the Russian Federation, it is required to increase the share of domestically produced grain in the world market at least to 95 %. This is facilitated by the presence of 9 % of the world's cultivated areas in the Russian Federation, where black soil is 40 percent. However, post-harvest processing of the entire grain heap brought from the fields is performed by production lines, where the completeness of separation is influenced by the contamination and moisture content of freshly harvested grain. An increase in humidity by 1 % of the baseline reduces the productivity of grain cleaning equipment by 2 %, and an increase in humidity by 1 % reduces productivity by 3 %. Therefore, the country's grain-flow farms need modern technologies for post-harvest grain processing. The main methods of increasing the productivity of machinery can be distinguished. They are: a uniform distribution of seeds over the sieve area, a better particle penetration into the sieve hole, an increase in the speed of grain movement on the surface of the sieves, a complication of the law of vibrations of sieve mills. According to the performed studies the completeness of separation on the sieve surface depends on the indicators of the relative motion of the particle, as well as the angle of inclination of the holes to the direction of descent, the speed and movement of the grain when interacting with the long edge of the sieve hole, performing harmonic oscillations. The following recommendations can be made: the separation process improves at an angle of inclination of the sieve openings β = 45°, the frequency of sieve vibrations n = 110 min-1, the amplitude of sieve vibrations A = 0,09 m, the angle of the sieve transverse inclination αп = 1,5°...2,5°. The cleaning of the grain mixture is carried out qualitatively in accordance with the agrotechnical requirements in this operating mode.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2020;(4):27-34
pages 27-34 views

Influence of the shape of potato tubers on the quality of separation into fractions by the working bodies of potato sorting machines

Romanyuk N.N., Yednach V.N., Voynash S.A.

Abstract

Many agricultural producers are faced with problems of sorting flat and oval potato tubers into size fractions using roller sorting surfaces. The paper studies the influence of the shape of potato tubers on the speed of their orientation relative to the calibrating holes, and, as a consequence, the performance indicators of machines and the quality of the process performed. The aim of the study is to determine the causes of damage to tubers during sorting and ways to eliminate them. There was substantiated the relationship between the kinematic parameters of the roller surfaces of potato sorting machines and the shape of tubers, which makes it possible to reduce damage and improve the quality of sorting potatoes into fractions. A number of experiments were carried out to determine the relationship between the shape of tubers and the kinematic parameters of the roller surface. In the first experiment, the number of tubers that will pass through the calibrating slot in a certain time was determined at different gear ratios in the drive of the rollers of the calibrating surface. In the second experiment, the time was found for a certain number of tubers of various shapes to pass through the calibrating surface. The graphs of the experimental dependences of the number of tubers of 43 mm thick passed into the calibrating gap between the rollers of 42 mm in 5 seconds on the ratio of the peripheral speeds between the rollers are presented. And the graphs of the dependence of the change in the time of passage of a group of tubers with a thickness of 40 and 42 mm through the gap between the rollers with a width 42 mm from the ratio of the peripheral speeds between the rollers are given. Based on the carried out studies, it was found that the ratio of the peripheral speeds of adjacent rollers, forming the calibrating slot, have a significant effect on the quality of the separation of tubers into fractions and are the cause of damage influenced by deformation. The presented analysis makes it possible to assess the influence of the shape of the tuber on the quality of the separation of tubers by roller calibrating surfaces of potato sorting machines, and also indicates the ways of improving the design of equipment for the finalization of potatoes after harvest and before sale.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2020;(4):35-44
pages 35-44 views

Determination of the specific soil resistance using deep subsurface tillage in conditions of Northern Kazakhstan

Kuvayev A.N.

Abstract

The paper proposes a method for determining specific soil resistance and presents the results of the conducted research. One of the main limiting factors in determining the working width of the tillage implement is specific soil resistance. This indicator is a quantitative characteristic of the labor intensity of soil tillage. Therefore, when designing new machinery, it is necessary to have reliable data on its value. The data presented in the scientific literature on the value of specific soil resistance are average and do not take into account the parameters of tillage working tools. Therefore, the determination of specific soil resistance for working tools with known parameters is the current topic of scientific research. The purpose of the research is to determine the value of specific soil resistance for working tools with known parameters. The research method consists of the experimental determination of the total draft resistance of the tillage implement and further mathematical processing of the experimental data obtained on the basis of the rational formula of V.P. Goryachkin. To conduct experimental research, a laboratory unit was developed, the design of which eliminates the impact of its weight on the draft resistance, arising from the friction between the parts of the working tool and soil. It was found that for the soils under consideration, which are typical for Northern Kazakhstan, the specific soil resistance is k = 45908 N/m2. The obtained coefficient of variation υ < 10 % indicates a slight change in the considered variation. Therefore, the obtained value of the specific soil resistance is reliable. The results obtained will be used to substantiate the working width of the tillage implement with the working tools under consideration.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2020;(4):45-52
pages 45-52 views

Determination of the rotation speed of chopped hay on the surface of the separator sieve of the leaf part of herbs

Abilzhanuly T., Abilzhanov D.T.

Abstract

To increase the production of livestock products, it is necessary to feed the animals with full-feed mixtures. The main component of the feed mixture is feed, which consists of grain feed, vitamin-grass meal (VGM) and other additives. Currently, high-temperature methods of drying hay are used for the production of VTM, which require high costs and expensive technical means. Therefore, to reduce operating costs and equipment costs, we proposed a technology and a line for the preparation of VGM from the leaf part of herbs. As part of the VGM preparation line, the main machine is a separator of the leaf portion of grass from pre-ground hay. The separation process is due to the fact that when grinding dry hay in sieveless shredders, the delicate leaf part is finely chopped, this contributes to the process of separating the leaf part of the grasses. The purpose of the research is to determine the speed of hay moving along the surface of the sieve, which allows to determine the productivity of the line by mass feed and flour. For the theoretical determination of the average speed of movement of the sieve, the method of mathematical analysis was used, and to determine the actual value of the speed of movement of hay on the surface of the sieve, the method of one-factor experimental research was used. As a result of theoretical studies, analytical expressions were obtained to determine the performance of the separator, the average speeds of the sieve in the horizontal direction and the movement of hay on the surface of the sieve. As a result of experimental studies, a regularity of the change in the average speed of hay movement depending on the length of the sieve was obtained, and this regularity provides an empirical expression for determining the actual value of the average speed of hay layer movement on the surface of the sieve and it is 0,19 m/s. With the average line capacity for mass feeding, the thickness of the transported layer over the sieve surface was 0.0186 m, and it is not maximum for the separator of the leaf part of grasses.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2020;(4):53-57
pages 53-57 views

Modern selection and seed grain harvesters of foreign companies

Gol'tyapin V.Y.

Abstract

The efficiency and intensification of breeding and seed-growing processes largely depend on equipping breeding establishments with the appropriate technical means. The most complex in design and operation of all the equipment used in the selection and seed-growing process are grain harvesters. In contrast to general production machinery grain harvesters are subject to increased agrotechnical and specific requirements due to the technology of breeding work. Analysis and evaluation of indicators of the technical level, as well as design features of grain harvesters for selection and seed production of foreign production will allow consumers to make informed decisions on their purchase and use. The most famous foreign manufacturers of special machines for breeding, seed production and agronomic research are Wintersteiger, Sampo Rosenlew, Zürn Harvesting, Haldrup, Almaco, Kincaid and Baural. The analysis showed that breeding and seed-growing combines produced by these companies usually have a hydrostatic transmission, are equipped with quick-detachable headers for various purposes and working widths, and differ in the presence of a variety of additional equipment, several options for harvesting seed and grain material (in packaging, bags, containers, bunker). Along with drum threshing machines, one and two rotary threshing machines (Almaco and Baural companies) are beginning to be used in their designs. Their power, focused on a variety of sizes of experimental plots, various stages of selection and experimental work and the amount of collected material, takes values from 20 to 160 kW, and the diameter of the threshing drum, which is the main working body of the combines, is in the range of 350-500 mm.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2020;(4):58-69
pages 58-69 views

Justification of the operating modes of the needle disk of a new design

Shmidt A.N., Kem A.A., Chekusov M.S., Kuz'min D.E., Soyunov A.S.

Abstract

The preservation and accumulation of productive soil moisture in areas with insufficient moisture and subject to wind erosion does not lose its relevance. Known disc needle-like working bodies of rotary harrows, intended for surface treatment on stubble backgrounds, are mainly aimed at loosening the upper soil layer. An incorrectly selected mode of using existing needle harrows is dangerous by excessive spraying and drying out of the surface of fertile soil. In this regard, there was proposed a new technical solution for a needle disk with a changing shape of needles, which makes it possible to loosen the top layer of soil from making holes on the surface of the field. A tillage tool with needle discs consists of a hub with needles fixed on it. The disc is installed afrontal, each needle is made of a variable shape, the first half made from the base of the needle is square, and the second half is pyramidal with a top at the end of the needle. The use of such needle discs with needles, which more easily penetrate the soil make it possible to efficiently chop up crop residues and loosen the soil, which improves the quality of soil cultivation. The tests of the new needle disk against the background of perennial grasses made it possible to substantiate the main operating parameters of the new working body. For sandy loam soil with a hardness of 14,5 kPa with an agrophone of perennial grasses, such as awnless rump and alfalfa, it was found that the maximum parameter for moisture accumulation will be achieved at a speed of 7 km / h with an angle of attack equal to 0°, and loosening at a speed of 9 km/h with an angle of attack of 16°. A rational parameter, at which not only moisture accumulation occurs, but also high-quality soil cultivation, is achieved when the angle of attack is set to 4° and the speed of the unit is 7 km/h.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2020;(4):70-75
pages 70-75 views

The point of obsolescence of complex agricultural machinery

Mel'nikov D.G., Tsarev Y.A., Adamchukova Y.Y.

Abstract

Each agricultural producer is always faced with the problem of how long complex agricultural equipment should be used, when it will be the need to buy a new one, or in general, when the need is to switch to a new direction. Complex agricultural machinery is expensive, maintenance and repairs of it are expensive as well, and our market economy is unpredictable. The solution to this problem is considered on the example of winter wheat harvesting with a self-propelled fourth-class combine harvester. The following theoretical prerequisite for solving the abovementioned problem is proposed. An agricultural producer purchased a combine harvester for 5 million rubles, and then the costs associated with its operation are summed up over the years: for fuels and lubricants, wages for machine operators, costs for repair and maintenance of the combine, costs for spare parts, cultivation and grain harvesting, taxes, etc. After the fifth year of operation already, according to the instructions, the combine harvester requires overhaul, and the costs of repair and maintenance are growing over time. The profit of an agricultural producer is formed as the difference between costs of the sale of grain. Over time, the productivity of the combine harvester decreases and at some point the operation of the combine becomes unprofitable; this is the point of obsolescence of the machine, when the agricultural producer must decide either to buy a new harvester or to change his business.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2020;(4):76-88
pages 76-88 views

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