Vol 86, No 5 (2019)


Analysis technology conversion of renewable energy sources in the engine fuel

Bodyakina T.V., Boloev P.A., Gergenova T.P.


The increase in the share of renewable energy sources as motor fuel of automotive vehicles can significantly affect the environmental and energy safety in the operation of equipment. The aim of the study is to analyze the technologies of conversion of renewable energy sources for use as a motor fuel. The raw energy medium primarily includes hydrocarbon compounds, which process of thermochemical transformation is accompanied by the release of the main target component - hydrogen. The presence of the hydrogen component causes unique kinetic and environmental indicators of its combustion, high efficiency of the engine operating cycle. Esters are derivatives of organic or inorganic acids and alcohols, they are found mainly in essential oils and make up the bulk of vegetable and animal oils. Currently, dimethyl ether is considered as one of the most promising fuels for diesel engines. In this regard, the transfer of diesels on the air does not require special measures for the forced ignition of the combustible mixture. If the raw material origin and the cost of production of dimethyl ether are taken into account, this is the most promising motor fuel. A positive property of vegetable oils is the ability to mix in any proportions with gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel, which allows to obtain biofuels with desired physical and chemical properties. The article deals with esters, methods of their production, vegetable oils. It describes the ways to achieve the necessary properties of alternative energy as motor fuel. The results of the comparative analysis of processing technologies of renewable energy in the fuel for automotive engines are given. It substantiates the potential use of alternative energy sources in the energy structure of the agricultural complex.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):3-6
pages 3-6 views

Implementation of a boost strategy for a diesel engine neutralization system based on integrated design techniques

Nadarejshvili G.G.


The work is devoted to the strategy of boosting the neutralization system during the development or modernization of internal combustion engines while taking into account toughening environmental standards. Improving internal combustion engines and their environmental systems is a possibility of competition with electric vehicles, which development is proceeding rapidly. The world chronology of the development of environmental standards shows the main difference between the global environmental legislation and the Russian one, which is the lag in the implementation of norms for 2-4 years. This makes it possible to make decisions based on already implemented world experience in the development of neutralization systems. The goal of the work is to substantiate the main directions of developing strategic technical solutions for boosting neutralization systems. An engine analog with well-known characteristics was selected - YaMZ 6566. The possibility of forcing the standard engine on the basis of similar world experience is substantiated and a comparative technical and economic analysis of the applied solutions for the neutralization system is given, taking into account the possibility of using recirculation. Possible directions for improving work processes are considered, among them there are: optimization of the combustion chamber and compression ratio, changing the injection strategy, increasing turbocharging. According to preliminary data on the results of testing on the KAMAZ 740 engine, the ecological basic characteristic of the engine in PM - NOx coordinates was obtained, this allows predicting the result using technical solutions. Based on the results of the chosen strategy of forcing the base engine YaMZ 6566, the results of experimental testing carried out at Central scientific research automobile and automotive engine institute «NAMI» are presented. Variants of various technical solutions for boosting the neutralization system and their implementation in a pilot device are presented. The conversion values for various technical solutions for the neutralization system for the YaMZ 6566 engine are shown. The achieved NOx conversion of 97 % allows to meet the most stringent environmental standards. The possibility of making strategic decisions on boosting the neutralization system and their subsequent technical implementation when achieving the set values of the environmental performance of the engine is confirmed.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):7-15
pages 7-15 views

Batch corn thresher

Pogosyan V.M.


Nowadays for the threshing of individual corn cobs at the selection stage there are no commercially available threshing devices of Russian production. Therefore, Russian scientists began to actively develop selective corn threshers, in particular, in the Krasnodar Research Institute of Agriculture named after P. Lukyanenko a batch corn thresher was developed. On the basis of research carried out in the Kuban State Agrarian University, a scheme of a single-corn maize thresher providing a higher quality of maize threshing in comparison with existing structures is proposed. Therefore, the goal of our study is to improve the quality of threshing cobs of corn selection material. The relationship of the geometric parameters of the proposed device and their influence on the technological process of cobs threshing were analyzed. As a result, the conclusion was made that each cob, depending on its diameter, is threshed by one of the elementary threshing devices, i.e., the correspondence of the gaps of the threshing gap with the diameter of the cobs is achieved automatically. There is no need to adjust the gaps of the threshing gap. Thus, the parameters of the process of threshing the сobs of the corn selection material are optimized and the quality of the threshing is improved.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):16-20
pages 16-20 views

Method for determining the parameters of an electromechanical transmission of an industrial tractor

Padalkin B.V., Gorelov V.A., Staduhin A.A., Kosicyn B.B., Balkovskij K.S.


In this paper, authors propose a method for determining the mechanical characteristics of traction electric motors and parameters of an electromechanical transmission of an industrial tractor. To ensure maximum machine performance, the developed transmission has two mechanical ranges: transport and technological. A feature of the presented scheme is the inclusion of a «ZK» type rotation mechanism (developed by the staff of Bauman MSTU G. Zaichik, M. Kreines and M. Kristi) in its composition. This mechanism is characterized by high traction in turning. The layout of industrial tractors involves placing the transmission in a cramped space inside the frame. In this regard, when developing the unit, it was required to implement its most compact design. This was achieved by using the same planetary gears to form the «ZK» rotation mechanism and for the reduced «technological» transmission range. As part of the study, traction capabilities of the tractor in each range were evaluated. In addition, an analysis was made of the influence of the design parameter of the planetary gears of the «ZK» mechanism on the operational characteristics of the machine. Depending on the design parameter, the required torques and rotational speeds of the traction electric motor rotors were obtained to ensure a given driving mode in a turn, and the time to complete a full rotation of the machine around the center of mass and the stopped side in the «transport» and «technological» transmission ranges was determined. In conclusion, an assessment was made of the influence of tractor transmission parameters on the maximum speed of maneuvers, which made it possible to determine the required power of electric machines taking into account the comfortable work of the driver-operator.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):21-30
pages 21-30 views

Methods of calculating the resistance and the moment of resistance to cutting the soil with a straight blade knife cutters

Konstantinov Y.U.


During the process of cutting the soil, the blade knives of the cutter and its hub experience cyclic loads. Therefore, along with the calculation of the knives for static strength, their calculation for fatigue strength is necessary. To carry out such a calculation, it is necessary to know the dependence of the main vector of the soil resistance forces to cutting and the main moment of these forces on the angle of rotation of the cutter. The construction of the methodology for calculating the resistance and the moment of resistance to cutting the soil with a plate knife, depending on the angle of rotation of the cutter, is the purpose of this study. Based on the proposed mathematical model of the interaction of the knife blade with the soil, such a calculation method has been developed. The obtained analytical dependences also include the geometric and operational parameters of the cutter. The relative depth of the cutter and its kinematic parameter, which is equal to the ratio of the peripheral speed of the end of the knife to the speed of the translational movement of the cutter, are taken as regime dimensionless parameters. It was shown that the resultant reaction of the soil to the knife blade during cutting periodically changes its value, direction and application point, and the maximum values of the driving force, the modulus of the resultant forces of soil reactions and the modulus of the total moment of soil resistance to cutting monotonously increase with an increase in the relative depth of the cutter. The angle, which is the resultant of the forces of soil reactions with the direction of movement of the cutter, decreases almost linearly with an increase in the angle of rotation. The technique allows to significantly simplify experiments to determine the power characteristics of the cutter and significantly reduce their volume, since it requires the determination of only one empirical constant. Due to the generality of the basic starting points, the proposed methodology can be mainly transferred to other rotational working bodies. Laboratory experiments conducted in the soil channel confirmed the adequacy of the proposed mathematical model for the interaction of the cutter blade with the soil.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):31-39
pages 31-39 views

Increasing the smoothness of the course of the forage harvester by optimizing the mass-dimensional and inertial parameters of its body

Sirotin P.V., ZHilejkin M.M.


A scientific and methodological rationale and practical recommendations for stabilizing the movement of forage harvesters are proposed. The calculation of the optimal weight and size and inertial parameters of the body, as well as the elastic properties of tires as the main element of the suspension system of the combine was theoretically justified. Using the developed methodology on the example of a prototype harvester, the possibility of calculating the optimal tire stiffness and the mass of additional counterweights installed at the machine is shown to ensure equality of the natural frequencies of the front and rear axles of the wheels on the elastic tire. Taking into account the mathematical and simulation model of the combine, which was developed by authors, its motion on a dirt road and asphalt highway with different speeds was modeled. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method for improving ride smoothness, a comparison was made of the peak and root-mean-square values of the longitudinal angle of inclination of the body, as well as the levels of vertical vibration acceleration in the cab on the floor under the seat of the combine operator in its basic version and a modified version due to the use of counterweights of a given mass and with optimized tire stiffness. With the help of simulation modeling, an octave analysis of the vibration load of the workplace was performed. It is shown that in the main driving modes, optimization of the weight, size and inertial parameters of the body, as well as the elastic properties of the combine tires, improves the comfort of the operator’s workplace, especially in the most dangerous frequency range for humans. There are determined the modes of movement, which allow to achieve the best effect. The stabilization process is described. The conclusions for further research are presented.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):40-47
pages 40-47 views

Methods for assessing the contact area of wheel propellers with a support base

Revenko V.Y., Godzhaev Z.A., Rusanov A.V.


Predicting the level of impact of agricultural machinery on the soil is necessary both at the stages of its design, and when selecting tires for already existing samples. To solve the tasks, the authors assessed the most famous works devoted to the description of the process of interaction of wheeled propulsors of tractors and agricultural machines with a dirt surface. Thirteen of the most famous mathematical models in Russia and abroad, that describe the relationship between the tire size parameters and the size and shape of the contact spot, are analyzed. A technique is proposed for evaluating the accuracy of a particular model, based on an analysis of the comparability of calculation results and the results of measuring the contour area of contact of tires with a rigid supporting surface at specialized test benches. As a result, it was found that the most acceptable is the model of E. Stakevich, which, due to its simplicity and high convergence of the calculated and measured indicators, is used by many researchers for practical calculations, proving their consistency both in the case of diagonal and radial tires. Based on the analysis, as well as on the results of compression of modern tires, a semiempirical model, that relates the dimensional and deformation parameters of the rubbercord sheath to the contact area, is proposed. An integral part of the model is a formula for determining the cross-sectional area of a conventional cylinder (having the same overall dimensions as the tire) with a plane that is separated from its center by the value of the static radius. The model is supplemented by a refinement coefficient taking into account the height of the profile and the degree of deformation of the tire. Its rather high accuracy (the deviation from the results of compression of 74 samples of modern tires does not exceed 5 %) and ease of use greatly simplify the process of assessing the level of impact of agricultural machinery on the soil and selecting the most effective type of wheel propulsors for existing machines.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):48-54
pages 48-54 views

The increase of the efficiency of harvesting the non-cereal part of the crop for the preparation of roughage

Brusencov A.S., Tumanova M.I., CHulakov Y.A.


The presence of roughage in the diet of animals (hay, straw) is necessary for the full feeding of cattle. Since they have high nutritional value, they are necessary due to the physiological characteristics of animals. Straw is a dry stalk obtained after processing cereals and legumes containing high fiber content. It is used to give the diet the necessary volume, or as an additive to diets with a large number of succulent feeds. The rye straw oat, barley are used widely as a litter for animals. It forms a wonderful insulating and blocking layer between the cold, wet floor and the animal. There are several basic technologies for harvesting the non-cereal part of the crop (NPC). The selected cleaning method determines the vintage composition of the harvesting and transport link. Simultaneous harvesting of roughage during the harvesting of grain and cereal crops will reduce the previously spent resources for this operation. A patent search of the analysis of structures and methods for harvesting NPC showed that research is ongoing to improve methods and technical means for harvesting the non-grain part of the crop. This paper considers the issue of combining several technological operations, as well as improving the quality of the harvested non-cereal part of the crop, improving the field culture, since it is not littered with weed seeds. The proposed method in comparison with the known methods of harvesting the non-cereal part of the crop has the following advantages: reduction of operating costs, reduction of time for one operation, reduction of production costs.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):55-60
pages 55-60 views

Ensuring the reliability of threaded connections on modern automotive vehicles

Antropov B.S., Kubeev E.I., Pogodina T.V.


When forcing engines, loads on parts of components and assemblies of automotive vehicles, but especially on parts of ICE itself, which are subject to gas, inertial and thermal loads increase. In this regard, serious requirements are made for threaded joints of machines - to exclude self-loosening of joints during operation and thereby regular monitoring of the condition of the threads and the need to tighten them during maintenance up to overhaul. The article discusses methods for improving the reliability of threaded joints: changing the shape and geometry of threaded elements, the use of gels and adhesives in threaded joints during their installation, the use of crimp bolts when assembling vehicle frames and the introduction of a method of tightening bolts in several stages in terms of torque and angle of rotation. An assessment of their effectiveness in operation was made.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):61-66
pages 61-66 views

The influence of the speed of the floating conveyor to the separating ability of the bottom of the inclined chamber

Ozhereliev V.N., Nikitin V.V., Sinyaya N.V., Kuzyur V.M., Kuznetsov A.E.


The results of the laboratory experiment confirming the possibility of preliminary separation of free grain from the combed grain heap before it enters the threshing chamber are presented. In particular, it is proposed to provide a combine harvester with a device for pre-separation of free grain, mounted between the inclined chamber and the threshing device. It includes two drums and an infinite mesh cloth. To intensify the process of separation of the combed grain heap on the fraction of the axis of rotation of the drums are made eccentrically with respect to their geometric axes. All studies were carried out on wheat varieties «Moskovskaya 56». Grain moisture was about 12 %. The speed of movement of the floating conveyor had five levels of variation in the range of 3-5 m/s. Flow oceanog grain heap was about 10 kg/s at a content of 80 % of free grain. The length of the mesh conveyor was 2 m, and its rectangular cells had dimensions of 17×15 mm. Thus, according to the results of scientific research, as the speed of the mesh conveyor increases, the amount of free grain passing through its cells tends to decrease, and the amount of grain coming down from it, on the contrary, to increase. The maximum passage of free grain (94,66 %) corresponds to the minimum speed of the mesh conveyor, equal to 3 m/s. The presence of free grain is due to the fact that during a series of experiments, the length of the separating surface was insufficient. To determine the optimal length of the mesh conveyor, the nature of the process of preliminary separation of free grain from the combed grain heap is considered. Extrapolation of this process shows that the minimum length of the mesh conveyor, providing 99 % of the free grain from the combed grain heap, must be at least 2,69 m. The practical implementation of such a technical solution in the design of a modern combine harvester will increase its productivity when combing plants at the root, reliably eliminating the possibility of crushing free grain by the working bodies of the threshing device.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):67-73
pages 67-73 views

The temperature state of the engine warmed up in freezing conditions in cold climates

Kolunin A.V., Bur'yan I.A., Novikov O.V.


A significant part of the territory of Russia is located in the cold climate zone. Negative ambient temperatures are inextricably linked to the temperature of the engine. The temperature range of the engines operated in the conditions of low temperatures of the cold climate is wider relative to the conditions of the middle band. The temperature drop of the engine is accompanied by significant stresses in the structural materials, especially in warm-up conditions. The most common low-temperature mode of operation takes place during heating after a long parking of vehicle without engine start. The temperature condition of the engine largely determines a number of factors within its working process. The completeness of fuel combustion, the consumption of crankcase gases, the viscosity of the operating materials, the conditions of thorns on the surfaces of the parts friction, the presence of condensation processes in the crankcase largely determine the reliability of operation. The activity of temperature changes in warm-up conditions is also considered. This paper describes an experiment consisting in the observation of the change in temperature of the liquids of the two systems. In the experiment, the coolant temperature of the cooling system and the oil temperature of the lubricating system as a criterion for determining the temperature state were chosen.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):74-78
pages 74-78 views

The influence of local loosening of the soil on soybean productivity

Pashchenko V.F., Syromyatnikov Y.U., Hramov N.S., Vojnash S.A.


The task of the chisel paws is to ensure a given stroke depth in conditions of increased soil density, and also to create conditions for improving the accumulation of moisture and air in the soil. There is no need to overlap deformations in the soil, which are distributed under the action of the chisel paws. The method of subsurface cultivation of the soil, which creates favorable conditions for the growth and development of soybeans and provides high grain yields in comparison with plowing, is studied. The influence of local processing on the conditions of growth, development and formation of plant productivity is determined in comparison with traditional processing. The technology of soybean cultivation in experiments, excluding the studied factors, was generally accepted for the eastern foreststeppe of Ukraine. The effectiveness of local loosening of the soil for soybean sowing is determined in comparison with the dump cultivation. The moisture content in the soil by the beginning of spring field work in all areas where local loosening of the soil was carried out in autumn was 0,4-1,3 % higher compared to plowing. The highest density of plants and field germination were on the variant of local loosening of the soil to a depth of 40 cm with the placement of paws through one meter, being equal 76,6 %. The difference in moisture content in the heap and non-heap tillage persisted until the flowering phase. The moisture content in this period in the areas of local loosening of the soil was 0,6-4,8 % higher compared to plowing, this improved the conditions for soybean growth, which height of plants on the variants of local loosening of the soil was 2,1-3,8 cm. In all variants of subsurface tillage the grain yield was higher than in the control by 0,03-0,07 t/ha. The highest yield was on the options for subsurface tillage to a depth of 40 cm - 1,03 t/ha.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):79-86
pages 79-86 views

Methodology for multicriteria assessment and selection of an effective method of grain disinfection

Pahomov A.I.


High-quality crop products should not contain extraneous and dangerous substances of both natural and artificial origin. Natural contaminants include parasitic micro-fungi and bacteria; artificial ones include chemical compounds in the form of pesticides and fertilizers. Pesticides, in one way or another solving the problem of disinfection, are themselves very dangerous. In addition, their constant use leads to mutations of parasitic microorganisms in the direction of extremely stable species, i.e. the problem of resistance. To avoid these shortcomings, there are alternative disinfection methods based on various types of electromagnetic energy. A variety of such methods raises the purpose of their objective assessment, including in comparison with chemical etching. This determined the purpose of the study, which consists in developing a scientifically based methodology for multicriteria assessment and choosing an effective method of grain disinfection. The object of the study was the chemical and electrophysical methods of disinfection, the subject of the study - the patterns of choosing the best of them. The novelty was made up of the stages of the methodology: structuring the attribute space, compiling a hierarchical diagram of groups of attributes, determining weighting factors and estimates based on the specifics of agricultural production. In mathematical tools, the maximum sum of weighted estimates method is used, according to which the integral criterion F is calculated. The technique is suitable for any disinfection methods with any number of signs and alternatives. An example of its application for four alternatives is given: chemical etching, microwave disinfection, SHV disinfection, disinfection with a low-frequency magnetic field (LMF). At the same time, the advantage of the LMF method was established, which received the maximum integral estimate F = Fmax = 0,864. The conclusions are drawn about the reliability of the methodology, the possibility of its application in an expanded space of signs, which gives an updated assessment.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2019;86(5):87-96
pages 87-96 views

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