Vol 89, No 2 (2019)

Science and Society
Radioactive contamination mitigation in the Arctic region
Sarkisov A.A.

Abstract

This article discusses the most significant sources of large-scale radioactive contamination to which the Arctic has been exposed since the middle of the last century, which are identified as 1) radioactive fallout and deposition from nuclear weapon testing; 2) plum waste from the Sellafield radiochemical plant (United Kingdom) and Cap de la Ag (France) nuclear fleet operation; 3) radioisotope thermoelectric generators; and 4) submerged and sunken radioactive objects. The article assesses the comparative contribution and associated radioecological risks of these sources, and special attention is focused on the “nuclear legacy” of the USSR/Russian nuclear fleet and the search for solutions. The article describes the content and implementation results of the “Development of a Strategic Master Plan for Disposition of Decommissioned Russian Nuclear-Powered Fleet and Rehabilitation of Hazardously Radioactive Sites and Facilities of Its Support Infrastructure” which was developed with broad international cooperation. Attention is drawn to remaining environmental problems associated with submerged and sunken objects that contain spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste in the Arctic, and the article presents generalized data on such objects and associated risks of water contamination as identified by analyses of model studies of possible accident consequences.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(2):107-124
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Review
Optogenetics and vision
Kirpichnikov M.P., Оstrovsky М.А.

Abstract

In this article the authors discuss electronic and optogenetic approaches for degenerative (blind) retina prosthesis as the main strategies for the restoration of vision to blind people. Primary attention is devoted to the prospects of developing retinal prostheses for the blind using modern optogenetic methods, and rhodopsins, which are photosensitive retinal-binding proteins, are examined as potential tools for such prostheses. The authors consider the question of which particular cells of the degenerative retina for which rhodopsins can be prosthetic as well as ways of delivering the rhodopsin genes to these cells. In conclusion, the authors elucidate the main provisions and tasks related to optogenetic prosthetics for degenerative retina.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(2):125-130
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Point of view
An analysis of the current state of Russian education
Tavokin E.P.

Abstract

In this article, the author identifies needs in the state’s educational system through a consideration of the Soviet experience and current conditions in Russia. The article presents a detailed analysis of the structure and content of federal educational standards as elucidated in 081100 “State and Municipal Management,” which leads to the conclusion that real knowledge and skills in the field of management cannot be obtained based on these standards. The author argues that the education of the humanities was built almost entirely upon the post-Soviet scheme, which has produced a system of pseudo-education in our country that reflects the state of modern Russian society. This system was formed after the destruction of the USSR within a newly established model of minimum state regulation of all spheres of society, the implementation of which has led to the loss of goal-setting and strategic functions of the domestic management system at all levels. The author calls for the revival of these strategic functions, which will entail a positive transformation of the system of vocational education.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(2):131-138
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Economics and law: interrelation in modern world
Sinitsyn S.A.

Abstract

The concept of the interdependence of law and economics is primarily expressed in modern legal studies by arguments for the leading role of economic analysis of law as a panacea for all possible defects in legal regulation. However, contemporary challenges dictate the urgent need to explore and critically evaluate the significance, completeness, and effectiveness of economic analyses of law and their impact on the legal system, as well as study the risks associated with the absolutization of this approach. This article demonstrates that the economic analysis of law is not based on the methods and algorithms of the legal and economic sciences, but rather represents an ideological tool of influence on legal consciousness and regulation that serves lobbying interests for specific legislative initiatives. The author analyzes the goals of the application of this methodology and its effects on the regulation of private and public relations and illuminates their differences. Based on an examination of regulatory and doctrinal Russian and foreign sources, the author demonstrates the limited range and purpose of economic analyses of the law as a methodological tool and suggests possible alternative approaches for revealing the relationship between law and economics, which are determined in consideration of modern developments in the economic and legal sciences.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(2):139-146
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From the workbook of the researcher
Theory and practice of sensorimotor psychosynthesis
Petrenko V.F., Kucherenko V.V.

Abstract

The article describes the theory and practice of applying suggestive techniques of sensory-motor psychosynthesis, which enables the patient to be introduced into altered states of consciousness through the formation of a special relationship between patient and physician (suggestor). This relationship is analogous to the “entangled state” described in quantum physics, and in psychology it acts as a state of empathy. The main feature of the sensory-motor psychosynthesis method, which distinguishes it from directive hypnosis, is the maintenance of the active suggestor's dialog with the patient.

The authors describe the dynamics of transformation of the picture of the world (or mentality) of a number of patients in the course of psychotherapy. This transformation occurs through the use of one of the primary methods of psychosemantics in the study of personality, namely the construction of semantic spaces, during which the patient in an altered state of consciousness creates and exists in a reality that corresponds to his/her personal aspirations and motives. The authors discuss applications of this approach in psychotherapy, sports, and criminalistic practice.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(2):147-156
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The mineral wealth of the Pacific Ore Belt
Volkov A.V., Sidorov A.A.

Abstract

Positive dynamics of world prices and the revival of exploration financing promote continued large investments in the construction of new mines to increase the production of minerals in the Pacific Ore Belt (POB). Several large deposits have been discovered, explored, and prepared for development in the countries of this region, thus attracting increased attention from mining companies. The total potential of mineral extraction in the POB, including in the East of Russia, could increase by 1.5–2 times over the coming years.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(2):157-165
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Problems of Ecology
Present geoecological transformations in the Kerch strait ecosystem
Fashchuk D.Y., Terentyev A.S., Kovalchuk S.K., Kucheruk N.V.

Abstract

This study examined the distribution, structure, and dynamics of bottom communities of macrozoobenthos in the Kerch Strait based on an analysis of literature sources from 1934 and 1955, archival data documenting hydrobiological field investigations of the Southern Research Institute of Marine Fishery and Oceanography (YugNIRO, Kerch) in 1986 and 1989, and results of the joint Russian-Ukrainian benthic survey of the Kerch Strait (47 stations) conducted by the Institute of Geography of RAS and YugNIRO in the summer of 2010. It was found that populations of filter-seston feeding bivalves in the strait ecosystem have degraded over the past 75 years, whereas populations of detritus-feeding polychaetes preferring muddy bottoms have become much more abundant. Researchers identified species of bottom animals and strait areas exhibiting maximum changes. An analysis of the dynamics of bottom sediment structure in the strait based on YugNIRO archival data and the results of a 2008 diving survey conducted by the Institute of Geography of RAS (49 divers) demonstrated that the observed transformations are associated with silting of a considerable part of the strait bottom as a result of both earlier and more recent economic activities, particularly the disposal of dredging grounds from 1960 to 1990 and the construction of the Tuzla Dam in 2003, respectively. However, the character of the fixed transformations does not enable us to identify the specified reasons as the sole causes of the changes; therefore, the authors also consider hypotheses explaining other mechanisms. The authors conclude that further research on geoecological dynamics of the Kerch Strait ecosystem is needed, particularly after the construction of the Crimean Bridge.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(2):166-171
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Abroad
Can we speak of a new social formation in China?
Vinogradov A.V., Salitskii A.I.

Abstract

The authors commemorate and analyze the mileage of 40 years of reforms in China, focusing particular attention on recent events: the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the 1st Session of the 13th National People’s Congress. Following our discussion of these events, the authors conclude that China has entered a new phase of development. A new original social system is now under construction, and Chinese specifics have gained integrity as an independent project of social development that serves as an alternative to the Western mode.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(2):172-178
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Bygon Times
Chain initiation
Ptushenko V.V.

Abstract

This article describes the formation of the chemical electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy institute established by Academician Vladislav V. Voevodsky (1917–1967) along with the history of the development of the instrumentation basis for this field of science in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The design of the first EPR spectrometers for the chemical radio spectroscopy initiated the emergence of a new scientific instrumentation field in this country. Based on recollections shared by scientists and engineers and an examination of archive materials, the author reconstructs relevant events and identifies major participants in this process.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(2):179-186
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Profiles
Triad of Samarskii. The 100th anniversary of academician A.A. Samarskii
Chetverushkin B.N., Mikhailov A.P.

Abstract

The paper presents a brief description of the life and scientific creativity of Academician A.A. Samarskii, an outstanding scholar with a worldwide reputation, the founder of the Russian tradition of mathematical modeling and the creator of the fundamental theory of difference schemes. The evolution of Samarskii’s concept of mathematical modeling and computational experimentation is traced from the end of the 1940s to the era of the information society. The basis of this concept and the associated research methodology was Samarskii’s concept of the famous “Model–Algorithm–Program” triad, which provides a universal sequence of actions for conducting research and development for the most critical fields of modern science. The paper presents examples of fundamental and applied results obtained by A.A. Samarskii and his disciples in crucial areas of scientific and technological progress.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(2):187-193
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In the world of books
Actual past: interaction and balance of interests of the academy of sciences and the Russian state in the XVIII – early XX century. Outlines of history
Kolchinsky E.I., Zenkevich S.I.

Abstract

Saint Petersburg: Renommée Publishing House, 2018. V. I. 704 p. V. II. 642 p. Series “Ad fontes. Materials and studies on the history of science.” Issue 9

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(2):194-197
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