Vol 89, No 8 (2019)

On the Rostrum of the RAS Presidium
The role of science in the study of and response to space threats
Shustov B.M.
Abstract

During the second half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, space hazards multiplied, the most urgent of which is space debris. Professionals working in space are exposed to this hazard daily and are aware of it as a problem. Furthermore, increasing attention is being paid to the unpredictable behavior of the Sun, which produces the so-called space weather. The asteroid-comet hazard is considered as potentially having the most catastrophic consequences. No manifestations of biological hazard have yet been observed, although as space activities develop, it is becoming increasingly important. The appropriate time scale for astrophysical hazards is many millions of years, so from a practical perspective, they have no importance. This article briefly describes the main types of space hazards. The author analyzes the results of research and practical work in the field, both worldwide and specifically in Russia. Comparative analysis leads to the clear conclusion that a national program must be developed for the study of space hazards and to respond to space threats. This article is based on a report made by the author at the meeting of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) on January 15, 2019.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(8):777-799
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Point of view
The main theories of additional complications in the earth’s biosphere
Shvartsev S.L.
Abstract

Evolution is an important topic for science in general and has been the main concern of many scientists for several decades. One reason for this continued interest is that science is yet to disclose the creative role that water plays in the formation of the outer shell of the Earth, determined by its antagonistic relationship with basalts and with the simple products of photosynthesis. Nonequilibrium is the main state in all evolutionary processes, ensuring the creation of new equilibrium formations with the environment. However, the water cycle, which continuously determines the flow of new water to systems breaking equilibria, produces an additional complication, leading to the constant acceleration of the evolution of the structure that characterized by V.I. Vernadsky as "water–rock–gas–organic matter (animate and inanimate)". Water provides a unity of the behavior of inert material and living matter.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(8):800-810
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Cyclical movement of religions: from unity to... unity
Gorokhov S.A.
Abstract

It has been established that the formation and development of a confessional space, influenced by competition between religions, are cyclical. Due to the weakening of the monopoly and growth of religious competition, once-prevailing religions begin to lose their position either to another religion (the R-cycle of religious competition) or to secular ideologies (such as social secularization, the S-cycle, or political secularization, the SP-cycle), a hallmark of the 19th–21st centuries. Moreover, the research revealed long inter-cycle stages in religious saturation. All three types of cycles are non-periodical. The S- and SP-cycles are also intermittent and reversible, and they may proceed in parallel with each other and with R-cycles. The diffusion of these cycles is wave-like but differentiated within the confessional space structure: the occurrence of the R-cycle is confined to countries and their administrative–territorial units, while the SP-cycle appears in world macro-regions, and the S-cycle does not appear to be constrained.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(8):811-819
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Organization of Research
Russia in the world array of scientific publications
Mokhnacheva Y.V., Tsvetkova V.A.
Abstract

This article presents the results of a study on the representation of Russian publications in the global array of publications that discuss narrow thematic areas within the entire post-Soviet period, using ranking distributions from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoS CC). For extraction and analysis, the classifiers provided by the WoS categories were used. Of the 252 subject categories in the WoS CC, the share of Russian publications for 2010–2017 was not less than 0.4% of the global flow in 132 scientific areas. Therefore, in the period 1993–2000, a gradual recovery was found of Russia’s lost position in the world ranking of countries by number of publications in the WoS CC. Currently, positive changes have been observed both for the entire array of Russian publications in particular in narrow scientific topics. The highest-ranking position for Russian publications fell in 1993–1999, and the greatest decline, when the share of Russian publications fell to their minimum values, was in 2011–2014. Data on the scientific areas in which Russia managed to stay in the top 10 leading countries during its recent history, according to share of publications in the global array, are presented. This list slightly expanded from 2010 to 2017, and today, it includes 39 areas in which Russia is in the top 10 countries, and it is among the five leading countries in eight areas of knowledge.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(8):820-830
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Problems of Ecology
Model-driven system for operational forecasting of river flooding
Zelentsov V.A., Alabyan A.M., Krylenko I.N., Pimanov L.Y., Ponomarenko M.R., Potryasaev S.A., Semenov A.E., Sobolevsky V.A., Sokolov B.V., Yusupov R.M.
Abstract

This article presents the results of the development and testing of a system for operational forecasting of river flooding. This system is based on the use of a complex of hydrological and hydrodynamic models and in-situ and satellite data. It is implemented on the basis of service-oriented architecture. A distinctive feature of the system is its full automation of the entire modeling cycle, from the initial data loading to the results of interpretation, visualization, and notification of stakeholders. The theoretical background for ensuring the coordinated functioning of system components is provided by the qualimetry of the models and polymodel complexes that have been developed by the authors. The implementation of the system’s software was performed using open source and free tools. The results of testing indicate the possibility of the widespread introduction of such systems for authorities and emergency services.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(8):831-843
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From the workbook of the researcher
Mechanisms of the natural defenses of hosts to infection
Bukharin O.V.
Abstract

The relationship of humans and microbes is an eternal topic. Do microbes bring any benefits or only harm? As years pass, new microbiological technologies appear, new facts regarding the coexistence of microbes and human are discovered, and new understanding of our life together with microbes is achieved. The mechanisms of the host’s natural defenses from infection are considered in this article, with three participants of this chain examined in particular: the hypothalamic-pituitary system, oxytocin, and microbiota. Outwardly, these structures are independent of each other: the central switchboard that provides the universal regulation of our behavior, decision-making, and health is the human brain. It regulates the work of the main vital organs through the production of the neurohormone oxytocin, and it was recently discovered that intestinal microflora (microbiota) participates in this regulation. Thus, the loop is closed, and the question arises: do microbes really control us? Let us examine this more closely.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(8):844-850
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History of academic institutions
Novosibirsk state university – a new type of university
Fedoruk M.P., Yakovleva O.E.
Abstract

The article reviews the history of the founding of Novosibirsk State University in the context of the first years of Akademgorodok in Novosibirsk, the largest scientific center in the eastern part of Russia. It describes the logic of the formation of a system for training researchers: physic and mathematic School – University – institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The main characteristics of the principle "education through research" are presented along with the current status of the University and plans for the future.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(8):851-859
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Profiles
The founder of russian physiology To the 190th anniversary of the birth of Ivan M. Sechenov
Nozdrachev A.D., Paltsev M.A.
Abstract

This essay on the outstanding Russian educator, natural scientist, and physiologist Ivan M. Sechenov, the founder of the Russian physiological school, is being published for the 190th anniversary of his birth. It reviews the major parts of the scientific and pedagogical activity of Sechenov’s work on his life path. His scientific achievements involved a wide range of physiological problems, including respiratory, metabolic, and neuromuscular physiology. Sechenov’s greatest contributions were made in the study of the central nervous system, where he made the fundamental discoveries that form the basis of the study of all forms of brain activity. His scientific achievements received worldwide appreciation and laid the foundation for neurophysiology, neuroendocrinology, narcology, biophysics, comparative and evolutionary physiology, and the use of natural science in psychology. His name has been immortalized in the hearts and minds of many.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(8):860-873
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In the world of books
A.A. Shakhmatov. Selected correspondence. In 3 vol. Vol. 1: correspondence with f.F. Fortunatov, V.N. Peretz, and V.M. Istrin.
Nikitin O.V.
Abstract

V.G. Vovina-Lebedeva (Ed.), Compiled by V.G. Vovina-Lebedeva, E.N. Gruzdeva, and A.E. Zhukov

Saint Petersburg: Dmitry Bulanin, 2018. 944 P.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(8):874-877
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I.I. Smul’skii. New astronomical theory of the ice ages
Zharov V.E.
Abstract

Riga: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing, 2018. 132 Р.

In this book, a new approach to the astronomical theory of climate change is considered, and problems of the orbital and rotational motion of the Earth are solved using the numerical method. The author of the monograph investigated the evolution of the earth’s axis and obtained the periods of its oscillations coinciding with observed oscillations. Calculations that covered 100,000 years showed a significant oscillation of the earth’s axis, which has led to fluctuations in insolation that can explain the changes in the paleoclimate.

 

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(8):878-879
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Official section
Awards and prizes
Herald of the Russian academy of science B.
Abstract

Awards and prizes

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(8):880-882
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