Vol 151, No 1 (2019)

ARTICLES
Approaches to the allocation of periphery and рeripheralization in the spatial development of modern Russia
Anokhin A.A., Kuzin V.Y.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the issues of periphery and peripheralization of the spatial development of Russia, a significant part of the territory of which has experienced the negative direction of social and economic development during the transition to a market economy and continues to undergo it at the present time.

The article discusses the theoretical approaches of Russian and foreign authors to the definition of the concepts of «periphery», «peripheralization of space». Based on the use of methods of comparative analysis and systematization, the authors identified six main approaches of researchers to the definition of the concept of «periphery»: positional, functional, problem, generative-translational, social, subjective, and also revealed the content and peculiarity of each approach.

The authors highlighted such basic properties of the periphery as diverse remoteness, economic degradation and social marginalization, poly-scale character, migration outflow, ubiquity and relativity, weak involvement in global economic relations. A system of indicators characterizing the periphery in accordance with the selected approaches is proposed.

On the basis of the conducted research, it was concluded that the spatial development of individual centers of Russia is taking place with the spatial degradation of its most part, which significantly actualizes the question of the future of the Russian periphery and its impact on the spatial development of the country as a whole. Due to the weakness of its own potential, the Russian periphery cannot act as an independent attractor of socio-economic development and requires strengthening state regulation measures based on the competitive advantages of each territory.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(1):3-16
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Transformation of the ethnic space of Russia in the XVIII—XIX centuries: the historical-geographical analysis
Manakov A.G.
Abstract

The article presents the results of a statistical-cartographic analysis of changes in the territorial structure of the ethnic space of Russia (within modern borders) at the level of the country's macroregions from the beginning of the XVIII century to the end of the XIX century (first census of 1897), divided into four periods — from 1719 to 1762 years, from 1762 to 1795 years, from 1795 to 1850 years, from 1850 to 1897 years. There are four components of the territorial structure in the ethnic space of Russia: the Russian ethnic core, the contact zone of the Russian megacore, the internal and external periphery. The proportion of the Russian population and the ethnic mosaic index are used as quantitative criteria for identifying these components of the territorial structure of the ethnic space of Russia. The research revealed that during the entire period of the study, there was a constant reallocation of the Russian population from the Russian ethnic core into macroregions, forming other components of the ethnic space of the country. In the second half of the XIX century macroregions that belongs to the contact zone of the Russian megacore and partially to the inner periphery began to perform the same function, jointly participating in the Russian colonization of the external periphery (outskirts of the Russian Empire).

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(1):17-28
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Transformation of urban spatiotemporal systems, by the example of retail impact to large hosing estate areas of Leningrad—St. Petersburg, 1989—2016
Axenov K.E.
Abstract

Using the example of retail development in the former socialist large housing estate areas of Leningrad—St. Petersburg in 1989—2016 the paper outlines and provides evidence for 3 principles of the spatiotemporal systems (STS) development under urban transformation: principle of essence changing during transformation of a STS; principle of joined-up nature of spatial, temporal and essence-based parameters of urban STS (USTS); possibility of mismatch of spatial, temporal and substantive hierarchies of transformational USTSs. Paper describes 6 stages of spatial development of retail during the studied period and corresponding spatial forms and peculiarities of retail STS spatial development: early transformation; first stage of administrative reform; pavilions and market places; specific transformational forms displacement; domination of large stationary trade forms; convenience shops stage. Corresponding spatial forms and specificities of retail STSs organization in former socialist large housing estate areas are characterized as well: kiosks and stand-alone-sellers agglomerations near metro stations and public transport stops; kiosks and pavilions agglomerations near metro stations plus market places; retail tents and other mobile trade forms near metro stations plus new market places; large shopping centers, stationary market places plus kiosk chains; hypermarkets, chained stationary shops, temporary agglomerations of mobile facilities near metro stations; convenience shops and illegal kiosks. Specific methodology of complex STSs research was developed and tested.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(1):29-44
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Relationship between variability of hydrological and hydrochemical properties of runoff and basin landscape structure in the taiga zone
Khoroshev A.V., Lukyanova A.N., Kositskiy A.G., Shkolny4 D.I.
Abstract

The research focuses on dependence of inter-year and inter-seasonal variability of hydrological and hydrochemical properties in lower gauge lines of small rivers on landscape structure of a basin as a whole. We used the example of the Zayachya river (Ustyansky district, Arkhangelsk Region) and basins of its tributaries with different shares of forests and cultivated lands to test the hypothesis that certain regional-specific proportions and neighborhoods of land use types ensure low variability of hydrological and hydrochemical regime. We performed measurements in all seasons in 2013—2017 in 15 gauge lines. Correlation analysis showed evidence that decrease in forest areas and increase in arable lands and meadows in the deeply dissected agrolandscape results in new emergent properties of the river basins geosystems: waters shift for calcium to magnesium class, amplitudes of hydrochemical properties fluctuations change as well as that of discharge. Agrolandscapes induce decrease of runoff yearly fluctuations and increase of discharge. Forest cover supports natural fluctuations of river hydrochemistry due to sharp difference in mineralization between floods and low water periods. Decrease of forest proportion in a basin up to 30 % and lower causes the contents of hydrocarbonates, calcium and magnesium during spring floods to be similar to high content during low water period despite strong dilution.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(1):45-60
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Khabarsky Reserve as the main object of the nature protected areas system in the Burla River basin
Stoyashcheva N.V., Rybkina I.D., Reznikov V.F., Gubarev M.S.
Abstract

The analysis of distinctive features of the system of special nature protected areas (SNPA) in the developed regions of the south of Western Siberia is presented. The main criteria for the establishment of the nature protected area system (representativeness, typicality, uniqueness, diversity, socio-economic significance) are discussed. The characteristic of the system of SNPA in the Burla River basin was given, the problems of its functioning were defined, and the measures for its improvement using both traditional and new forms of nature protected areas were proposed. The Khabarsky Natural Reserve is estimated as a key object; functional zoning of its territory was made and three zones (special protected, recreational and agricultural) were specified. The economic activity regulations were elaborated for each zone. It was concluded that the newly established natural reserve meets most of the criteria for SNPA, including those for the developed regions.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(1):61-71
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G. P. Helmersen and the value of his geological researches for the Russian geography of the XIX century
Suhova N.G.
Abstract

G. P. Helmersen (1803—1885), a mining engineer, professor and director of the Mining Institute, the first academician of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in geology, had made a significant contribution to Russian geology. For many years he conducted geological researches in different parts of European Russia, the Urals and Altai. Helmersen paid much attention to the analysis of coal deposits in Donbas, in Moscow lignite basin and in the Urals. Contemporaries believed that his works were important not only for geology, but also for geography of the XIX century. The article attempts to confirm this opinion.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(1):72-89
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On the conference of biogeographers in Saint Petersburg
Galanina O.V., Terekhina N.V.
Abstract

On the conference of biogeographers in Saint Petersburg

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(1):90-94
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