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Vol 24, No 11 (2021)


Microfluidic devices adapted for stem cell cultivation (review)

Teplyashina E.A., Kutyakov A.A., Shadrina L.B., Salmina A.B.


Currently, microfluidic devices of various nature and filling are of great importance for research in the field of molecular biology, neurobiology and clinical medicine. Modified microfluidic analytical systems created on the basis of specialized functional elements have unique properties aimed at studying cellular structures and the biochemical processes occurring in them. The functional advantages of microfluidic devices include, first of all, the creation of a constant concentration gradient of reacting components, the small size of these components, the minimum consumption of reagents, the possibility of setting up high-precision experiments. Microfluidic systems also allow monitoring the state of the cellular microenvironment by simulating physiological conditions. The most promising vectors of the development of microfluidic technologies regarding the cultivation of cell cultures of various origins are analyzed. The parameters of creating 3D cellular structures are considered. The possibilities of using various microfluidic systems with respect to cell lines of various origins are investigated in order to study their functioning and identify certain patterns of development. The review summarizes the methods of culturing cell cultures of other origin using microfluidic technologies, namely: experiments related to modeling liver, kidney, tooth pulp cells, muscle or cartilage tissue.
Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2021;24(11):3-8
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Intensity of induced carbonylation of milk proteins as an identifier of their preservation

Kryshkina G.G., Vysokogorskiy V.E., Sokolova M.A., Strelchik N.V.


Relevance. Preservation of anti-oxidative protection of milk is important for preservation of biological properties and taste of the product. The most sensitive marker of activation of free radical processes is oxidative modification of proteins, which served as the basis for determining its level during milk storage. The purpose of the study. Determine the intensity of spontaneous and metal-catalyzed oxidative modification of proteins in the early shelf life of milk. Material and methods. The material of the study was samples of drinking pasteurized milk. To identify the state of oxidative modification of proteins in the early shelf life, milk samples were stored at oxygen access and a temperature of 3-4 °C. In some samples of milk, dihydroquercetin was added at a dose of 0.25 mg/L. The formation of derivatives of carbonyl amino acid derivatives was determined by their reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with the registration of dinitrophenylhydrazones on the UNICO 2800 spectrophotometer with various wavelengths from 230 to 535 nm. Results. When determining the spontaneous oxidative modification of proteins after 48 hours of milk storage under aerobic conditions, no significant accumulation of carbonyl protein derivatives was detected. In the induction of free radical processes by the addition of iron ions and hydrogen peroxide, the total content of all products of oxidative carbonylation of proteins increases after 48 hours of storage of milk under aerobic conditions by 53%, both due to aldehyde derivatives and ketones. Induction of oxidative processes by iron leads to the formation of carbonyl derivatives of amino acids of a neutral and basic nature. After 48 hours of milk storage, the re-serve-adaptation potential for both aldehydes and ketone-dinitrophenylhydrazones increases. Dihydroquercetin at a dose of 0.25 mg/l inhibits the activation of metal-catalyzed modification of milk proteins after 48 hours of milk storage under aerobic conditions at a temperature of 3-4 °C. Conclusion. Indicators of the level of Indicators of the level of carbonyl derivatives of milk proteins can serve as an additional marker for assessing the biological value and shelf life of milk.
Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2021;24(11):9-14
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Polyphenolic composition and antiproliferative activity of small malt bean extract (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)

Gudinskaya N.I., Nikolaev A.A.


Relevance. In recent years, there has been increased interest in finding and using natural, highly effective and inexpensive plant antioxidants to replace existing synthetic antioxidants. Dried licorice roots have long been widely used as a food flavoring and for various medicinal purposes. Licorice root preparations are known for their significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties. However, the antiproliferative activity of polyphenols from licorice beans has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to study the composition of polyphenols in licorice beans and their antiproliferative activity. Material and methods. We used 1000 g of dried mass of licorice beans. Chemicals and reagents used in the work were of analytical grade. We used an ethanol extract of licorice beans. The analysis of polyphenols in ethanol extract of licorice beans (EEBS) was carried out on the basis of the Folin - Ciocalteu method. The content of polyphenols was expressed in grams of gallic acid equivalent (EGA) per 100 g dry weight (g EGA / 100 g DM). Polyphenols were identified by HPLC (Gilson C18 column 4.6x250 mm, 5 jim). Cytotoxicity analysis was performed on LNCaP cell culture. After 48 h of exposure to EEBS, a standard MTT test was performed. Results. The total content of polyphenols in the EEBS in recalculation of gallic acid was 37.17 jig. Glabrin, catechin, rutin, lycochalcon A, and ellagic acid have been identified. After an incubation period of 48 hours, the ethanolic licorice bean extract showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth from 40 to 140 |jg/ml. The maximum effect was obtained from 100 |jg/ml, which demonstrates the cytotoxic effect of EEBS on LNCaP cells over 85%. Conclusion. It has been shown that licorice beans, along with licorice root, can be used as a powerful biologically active source of natural antioxidants and anticancer agents.
Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2021;24(11):15-19
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Vitamin D and its status in vegetarians and vegans

Galchenko A.V., Ranjit R.


Vitamin D is an essential hydrophobic micronutrient. There are at least seven different forms of vitamin D, however, only D2 and D3 are considered to be its biologically active forms in the human body. Besides its primary functions of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism, vitamin D exerts a number of additional biological effects. For instance, it is a powerful immunomodulator. Lack of vitamin D is primarily associated with osteoporosis and rickets. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency can aggravate the risks of cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and even tumour genesis. At the same time, vitamin D can be extremely toxic if taken in excess. As a consequence of vitamin D hypervitaminosis, severe impairment in calcium metabolism may occur and can result in neuropsychiatric abnormalities, gastrointestinal, renal, or cardiovascular disorders. The human body mainly obtains vitamin D3 by endogenously biosynthesizing it from cholesterol in the skin in presence of ultraviolet radiation. The richest food source of vitamin D3 is oily sea fish. Much smaller amounts of calciferol are found in dairy products, eggs, or liver. Mushrooms are also capable of accumulating vitamin D under the influence of sunlight, but they store vitamin D in its less active form - vitamin D2. Despite the presence of different forms of vitamin D in various foods, it is extremely difficult to compensate for its need if relied only on food, even for people who regularly include fish in their diet. And while vegetarians and vegans consume significantly less vitamin D and generally have lower serum concentrations, the entire population of extratropical regions is highly susceptible to calciferol deficiency, regardless of their diet. Therefore, it seems reasonable to regularly screen the vitamin D supply, especially for people living in high latitudes, no matter which diet they follow.
Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2021;24(11):20-27
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Mitochondrial dysfunction as a mechanism of antitumor and antimetastatic action of hybrid organotin compounds

Dodokhova M.A., Safronenko A.V., Kotieva I.M., Milaeva E.R., Shpakovsky D.B., Trepel V.G., Alkhuseyn-Kulyaginova M.S., Kotieva V.M.


The article is devoted to the study of the effect of hybrid organotin compounds (OOS) containing a fragment of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol on the level of mitochondrial dysfunction in the mitochondria of the liver and the primary tumor node of tumor - bearing animals (melanoma B16). The aim of the study was to evaluate some markers of oxidative damage and apoptotic processes in mitochondria with a five - fold intraperitoneal administration of bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylthiolate) dimethyltin (Me3) and (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylthiolate) triphenyltin (Me5) to C57B1/6 mice 48 hours after transplantation of tumor material (subcutaneously) on models of transplanted melanoma B16 tumors at the maximum effective doses of 375 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the candidates studied by us for drugs of the antitumor group bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylthiolate) dimethyltin (Me3) and (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylthiolate) triphenyltin (Me5) have properties to modulate oxidative stress and apoptotic processes in the mitochondria of tumor - bearing animals with melanoma B16. The obtained data fully correlate with the change in the growth of the primary focus and the activity of metastasis of the tumor process. One of the main targets of the effects of hybrid organotin compounds Me3 and Me5 is the mitochondria.
Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2021;24(11):28-33
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Content of macroelements in the hair of residents of West Kazakhstan

Batyrova G.A., Amanzholkyzy A., Umarova G.A., Tlegenova Z.S., Kononets V.I., Mamyrbayev A.A., Zharmakhanova G.M.


Aim. To study gender and age characteristics of the content of macronutrients Ca, K, Mg, Na, P in the hair of representatives of the population of Western Kazakhstan. Material and methods. A one-time cross-sectional study was carried out in the West Kazakhstan and Aktobe regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan. We examined 609 adult residents permanently residing in the studied region: 391 women (64.2%) and 218 men (34.8%) aged 18 to 60 years. Investigations of the macroelement composition of hair were carried out using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results. The content of macronutrients Ca, K, Mg, Na, P in hair had gender differences with higher concentrations of P, K, Na in men, and Ca, Mg in women. In the hair of men and women, the concentrations of K and Na significantly changed with age. At the age of 50-54 and 55-60 years, the content of K in the hair of men was 211% and 185% higher, and the content of Na was 237% and 177% higher than in men aged 18-24 years. The content of K in the hair of women 55-60 years old was significantly higher than in the age categories 18-24; 30-34 and 35-39 years old by 242%, 76% and 105%, respectively. The Na content in the hair of women 55-60 years old was significantly higher than that of those aged 18-24; 25-29 years old; 30-34; 35-39 and 40-44 years by 158%, 141%, 139%, 85% and 104%, respectively. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age, sex, BMI predicted the content of Ca, Mg, K, Na. Conclusions. The content of macronutrients in the hair of the adult population of Western Kazakhstan has gender differences with higher concentrations of P, K, Na in men, and Ca, Mg in women. The content of K and Na in hair of men and women significantly increases with age. Changes in the content of K and Na in hair observed with age can be associated with the aging process and a decrease in the functional capabilities of the body. An increase in BMI leads to an increase in the level of Na and K and a decrease in the level of Ca and Mg in the hair.
Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2021;24(11):34-41
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Assessment of microand macroelements profile of vegetable raw materials with potential antidiabetic effect

Vishnyakov E.V., Terninko I.I., Generalova Y.E., Toporkova V.I.


Relevance. In the pathogenesis of many diseases, including diabetes mellitus, a deficiency of micro- and macroelements plays an important role. Medicinal plant raw materials (MP) of common blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can accumulate micro and macro elements that are necessary for the correction of the pathology of diabetes mellitus. The aim. Evaluation of the elemental composition of blueberry shoots and common bean valves. Material and methods. In this work, as objects of research, we used shoots of blueberry and common bean valve. Raw materials registered as dietary supplements were purchased from the pharmacy chain in St. Petersburg. The analysis was performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (AES) on an Optima 8000 spectrometer (Perkin Elmer, USA). Results. It was found that the studied medicinal plant was dominated by ions of calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminum and zinc. However, it is worth noting that bean shells contain fewer trace elements than blueberry shoots, but this type of raw material is characterized by a greater accumulation of macronutrients (2 times more calcium, 4.9 times more magnesium). The trace element composition of the bean valves is less pronounced in quantitative composition in comparison with blueberry shoots (59 times less manganese, 3.3 times less zinc and 2.5 times less copper). Conclusions. It was possible to find out that the major components are calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminum and zinc, which, as part of mineral plant complexes, participate in the mechanism of antioxidant and hypoglycemic action of plants.
Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2021;24(11):42-46
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Study of chemical elements content in vegetable herbs and spices of Uzbekistan

Danilova E.A., Osinskaya N.S., Kurbanov B.I., Ahmedov Y.A., Khusniddinova S.K.


Relevance. It is generally recognized that for the normal functioning of a healthy person, the regular intake of sufficient amounts of vitamins and minerals with food is necessary. Every year vitamin and mineral complexes are becoming more and more popular. Macro- and micronutrients in combination with hormones, vitamins, amino acids and enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of the body and their interaction determines the normal course of physiological processes. Any disorders of micronutrient balance, whether as a result of any disease or other causes of imbalance, need to be corrected. One of the correction methods may be to correct the imbalance by adding appropriate spices and vegetable herbs containing the necessary micronutrients to the food. Material and methods. The content of macronutrients in different plants is characterized by relatively close values, while the content of micronutrients varies greatly. Such specificity of plants on their qualitative and quantitative structure causes interest of their use in practical medicine. The aim of the present study is to investigate the macro- and micronutrient composition of various vegetable herbs and spices. Results. The neutron activation analysis method was used to study the macro- and micronutrient composition of vegetable herbs and spices used in the Central Asian cuisine. It was shown that celery, mint and basil are the richest in qualitative and quantitative content of elements (Co, Fe, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se, Zn) among vegetable herbs. The highest content of iron among spices was found in turmeric -4 mg/g and cumin (zira) - 0.58 mg/g. Conclusion. The use of such spices and vegetable herbs not only improves the taste quality of cooked food, but also makes it possible to eliminate the imbalance of elements in the human body.
Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2021;24(11):47-53
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Comparative assessment of the informativeness of determining the content of chemical elements in blood serum, hair (wool), organs and tissues of experimental animals

Skalny A.A.


The aim of the study. To study the informative value of diagnostic biosubstrates in determining the elemental status of experimental animals under physiological conditions. Material and methods. 72 healthy male Wistar rats were used on standard laboratory feed. The analysis of blood serum, wool, liver, kidneys, heart muscles, thigh muscles for the content of 25 chemical elements was carried out by the ISP-MS method. Results. Data on the content of 25 chemical elements in the studied organs and tissues were obtained, and correlations of the elemental composition of blood serum and wool and the main active depots of macro- and microelements (kidneys, liver, myocardium, calf muscle) were studied. A relationship between the content of As, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, I, Na, Ni, P, Se and Zn in a number of organs and tissues and both biosubstrates - blood and wool serum was established. The content of Al, Co, Hg, Mg, Mn, Sn, Sr and V in a number of organs and tissues correlated with their concentration only in the blood serum, and the level of K, Li, Si in a number of organs and tissues - with their amount in the wool. At the same time, a relationship between the content of such elements as As, B, Ca, Fe, Hg, I, Li, P and V in blood serum and wool was revealed. Conclusions. Based on the correlation analysis of the data obtained, it can be argued that the analysis of hair (wool) for the content of a number of chemical elements is an informative method for assessing the status of these elements in a healthy body and their deposition. The analysis of blood serum to a slightly lesser extent reflects the state of exchange of a number of elements compared to hair. The prospects of using wool analysis as a method of controlling the redistribution of chemical elements between organs and tissues are shown.
Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2021;24(11):54-61
pages 54-61 views

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