Vol 8, No 3-4 (2008)


Pharmacology of Drugs of Peptide Structure

Shabanov P.D., Shabanov P.D.


The review of literature and proper data devoted to pharmacology of peptide drugs. The classification of peptide drugs was described. In the experiments, the comparative central effects of polypeptide drugs cortexin and cerebrolysin in dose range 1 µg, 10 µg and 100 µg were studied in Wistar rats after their administration into the cerebral ventriculi and in dose 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Both drugs induced moderate psychoactivating action, cortexin being more effective compared with cerebrolysin. This phenomenon was registered in all methods studied: open field, elevated plus-maze, intruder-resident, self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. It is suggested that cortexin and cerebrolysin have the same mode of action, but cortexin was more effective than cerebrolysin. The difference in intravernticular and intraperitoneal effects of drugs was that in the first case both drugs possessed anxiolytic actition, and in the second case the anxigenic effect was registered. Perhaps, the central anxiolytic effect of drugs was associated with nonspecific action of polypeptides following their administration into brain ventriculi. Besides, at the second part of investigatiuons, the Wistar rat pups in age of 4 days were injected intraperitoneally with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), activating stress system, or heat shock proteins 70 kDa (HSP-70), intracellular shaperons, possessing antistress properties. In adult rats of 90-100 days old, the effects of nootropics noopept and cortexin (1 mg/kg i.p.) were assessed. The activation of stress or antistress systems with CRH or HSP-70 respectively changed the drugs effects significantly. These effects were different in males and in females and depended on animal gender. The spectrum of pharmacological activity of noopept and cortexin changed. Noopept demonstrated preferable psychoactivating and antiaggressive effects but cortexin showed mild antiolytic and antidepressant activity. It is suggested that behavioral effects of nootropics depends on condition of the formation of stress system in early ontogeny.
Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2399-2425
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Comparison of Effects Anylocaine and Lidocaine on Ionic Channels of Isolated Neurones of Mollusc

Lisitsyna N.P., Petropavlovskaya T.A., Cherednik I.L., Ignatov Y.D., Pantsurkin V.I., Vislobokov A.I., Mel'nikov K.N., Borisova V.A., Lisitsyna N.P., Petropavlovskaja T.A., Cherednik I.L., Ignatov Y.D., Pantsurkin V.I., Vislobokov A.I., Melnikov К.N., Borisova V.А.


: It was shown that local anesthetics anylocaine and lidocaine in concentration 0.1, 1, 10,100 and 1000 µM in dose-dependent manner suppressed sodium and potassium currents. The amplitude slow potassium currents after action of anesthetics in low concentration (from 0.1 up to 10 µM) grew by 5-10 % in comparison with the control, and after over higher doses was reduced. In concentration 1000 µM the amplitude of all ionic currents was reduced approximately on 50 %, i.e. it was not revealed selectivity of action of the investigated substances on ionic channels. Membranotropic action of anylocaine and lidocaine on neurons can be realized also through influence on nonspecific conductivity of membrane, potential of a superficial charge of membrane near to ionic channels, kinetics of activation or inactivation of ionic currents. Anylocaine by 10-15 % more suppressed sodium and potassium ionic currents than lidocaine, and rendered longer post actions, i.e. more strongly contacted with ionic channels.
Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2426-2433
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Induction of Neuraminidase Activity in Neural Cells in Vitro by Synthetic Analogues of cAMP

Proshin S.N., Bychkov E.R., Lebedev A.A., Kosyakova G.P., Shabanov P.D., Proshin S.N., Bychkov E.R., Lebedev A.A., Kosyakova G.P., Shabanov P.D.


The treatment of human neuroblastoma NB-1 cells by db-cAMP induced the high frequency of neural cells bearing neurite as well as more than two-fold elevated activity of sialidase associated with plasma membrane (SAPM). The elevated silaidase activity was accompanied by increasing the quantity of mRNA for that enzyme as was estimated by RT-PCR. The neural cells with elevated SAPM activity and developed neurite were shown to have high activity of another enzyme (acetylcholinesterase) that is strongly considered as a biochemical marker of neural cell differentiation. Due to our experimental work it has been reasoned that elevated activity of sialidase associated with plasma membrane is closely related to neural cell differentiation and can be considered as a key factor for therapy of disorders connected to damage of cells of neuronal orogon
Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2434-2442
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The Effect of Unilateral Cortical Spreading Depression on Behavior of Mice with Defendant Pattern of Behavior

Mikheev V.V., Karpova I.V., Mikheev V.V., Karpova I.V.


In male CC57W mice with defendant pattern of behavior the functional interhemispheric asymmetry in regulation of elements of both intraspecies and individual behavior was registered. In these experiments socially significant reactions were connected with the left hemisphere, but elements of individual behavior did with the right hemisphere. This phenomenon was linked with preferable role of the right hemisphere in treatment of inputing sensor information, while the left hemisphere formed the motor response, or with different lateralization of positive and negative emotions.
Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2443-2447
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Effects of Levetiracetam on the Content of Neurotransmitter Amino Acids in the Brain of Rats with the Audiogenic Epileptiform Siezures

Malikova L.A., Fedotova I.B., Klodt P.M., Surina N.M., Poletaeva I.I., Kudrin V.S., Raevskiy K.S., Malikova L.A., Fedotova I.B., Klodt P.M., Surina N.A., Kudrin V.S., Poletaeva I.I., Rayevsky K.S.


The anticonvulsant action of novel antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LVT) on the content of aspartate, glutamate, glycine, taurine and GABA in brain structures of Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rats were studied using HPLC/FD techniques. The treatment with LVT anticipated decrease of levels of glutamate, glycine and taurine produced by seizure attack. In medulla oblongata LVT prevented the elevation of GABA level induced by the audiogenic stress. Thus, the anticonvulsant action of LVT against audiogenic seizures is likely to be related to the normalizing effect upon the levels of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter amino acid in the frontal cortex and medulla oblongata of KM rats.
Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2448-2452
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Cell Reaction of the Brain Mesocorticolimbic Dopaminergic System on Chronic Alcoholization in Rats

Lebedev A.A., Droblenkov A.V., Shabanov P.D., Lebedev A.A., Droblenkov A.V., Shabanov P.D.


The morpho-functional changes of mesocorticolimbic structures of rat brain were studied in rats after chronic alcoholization within 5 months. Alcoholization decreased both the volume and density of neurons of the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. The character of changes was like parabolic curve. The volume of neurons of the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area was decreased by 1.3-1.5-fold and the density of neurons did by 1.8-3-fold. The density of neuroglial cells of the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area was increased by 1.3-1.4-fold. The density of the nucleus accumbens and the anterior cingular cortex was decreased significantly (by 4.1-2.4-fold) though the volume of living neurons did not change that could be explained with enlarging of their receptor surface. One month after withdrawal of ethanol, the increased volume of neurons (by 1.3-1.5-fold) of the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area with 3-fold decreased density of neurons were observed that pointed to partial compensation of the functions of neuroglial cells. The density of neuroglial cells of the nucleus accumbens and the anterior cingular cortex was identical to that after chronic alcohol intoxication. Therefore, the significant decrease of both density and volume of neurons of mesocorticolimbic structures accompanied by the elevated density of neuroglial cells can be assessed as morphological signs of chronic alcohol intoxication persisting after its withdrawal.
Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2453-2456
pages 2453-2456 views

The Evaluation of Reactivator of Acetylcholine Esterase Carboxim as a Drug for Prevention from Poisoning with Phosphororganic Inhibitors of Acetylcholine Esterase

Prozorovskiy V.B., Skopichev V.G., Panchenkova O.A., Prozorovskii V.B., Skopichev V.G., Panchenkova O.A.


Carboxim possesses the properties of inreversible-reversible inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase, reducing the velocity of phosphorilation for the enzyme and defending it from inreversible inactivation. Carboxim in use with atropine (in subeffective doses 5 + 5 mg/kg) increases the defense from phosphororganic inhibitors of acetylcholine esterase in 6-11-fold when used as preventive (defense index equal 26.2) or curative (defense index equal 24.9) agent.
Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2457-2462
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Hypoxen Administration as Meteorological Adaptive Drug in Healthy Volunteers in Ascent to Elbrus

Ganapol'skiy V.P., Vlasov A.A., Ganapolsky V.P., Vlasov A.A.


It has been shown that hypoxen administration at high altitude ensures more effective and prompt adjustment of healthy volunteers at altitude. Authors investigated hypoxic hypoxia influence on psychophysical parameters of 26 healthy not trained volunteers (men, aged 22-26 years old) conjointly with low ambient temperature in summer (in the middle of July) at high altitude ( RF DD Terskol camping site) and in ascent to Elbrus. Hypoxen intake at a dose of 0, 5 g/ 3 times a day during all period of staying at high altitude normalizes investigated physical indexes and psychological component of body functional condition. Hypoxen has meteorological adaptive properties and can be indicated as remedy for maintenance physical and mental efficiency in specialists in different fields.
Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2463-2468
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The Efficacy Estimation for Placebo Therapy on Emotional and Motivational State in Alcoholic Patients in Postabstinent Period

Vostrikov V.V., Mayorova O.V., Vostrikov M.V., Shabanov P.D., Vostrikov V.V., Maiorova O.V., Vostrikov M.V., Shabanov P.D.


The psychological peculiarities of emotional and motivational state following placebo therapy were studied in 40 alcoholic patients in postabstinent period. The significant differences were revealed between patients groups. It was concluded that the differential approach was necessary to treat the abstinent syndrome and in postdetoxification period.
Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2469-2475
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Neurophysiological Mechanisms of Behavior Compensation in Schizophrenic Adolescents Abusing with Alcohol and Drugs by Means of Alpha-Stimulating Training

Yakovlev N.M., Kositskaya Z.V., Panfilov R.V., Shabanov P.D., Yakovlev N.M., Kositskaya Z.V., Panfilov R.V., Shabanov P.D.


In 33 schizophrenic adolescents, abusing alcohol and drugs, the compensation mechanisms of emotive behavior were processed using feedback alpha-stimulating training. Psychomotor stimulants, possessing toxic effect on the central nervous system, provoked the debute of schizophrenia, accelerated progress and clinical severity of the disease. The successful results were received in patients with debute of psychic disease.
Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2476-2483
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The Comparative Estimation Influence of Drugs from Russian Flora Plants on Insuline and Glucose Blood Level in Alloxane-Diabetic Rats

Barnaulov O.D., Barnaulov O.D.


The treating of alloxane-diabetic rats for 8 days with shoot's decoctions Vaccinium myrtillis, Vaccinium uliginosum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Empetrum hermaphroditum and herb's decoction Rubus hamaemorus decreased blood glucose concentration at 45-th min. glucose-tolerance test to intact animal's level. Rutine, decoctions Empetrum hermaphroditum, Rubus hamaemorus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium myrtillis increased blood insuline concentration, but rutine and Arctostaphylos didn't lowered hyperglycemia. Antidiabetic activity was discovered for 5 from 9 plants. So the searching and introduction of antidiabetic plants in phytotherapeutic practice have good perspectives.
Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2484-2490
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To the 85th Anniversary of P.D. Denisenko

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Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2491-2492
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To the 70th Anniversary of A.T. Burbello

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Psychopharmacology & biological narcology. 2008;8(3-4):2493-2494
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