Vol 5, No 2 (2017)



Sysuev B.B., Evseeva S.B.


These days Natural mineral salts (biologically active ingredients), which are the components of thermal springs, sea water, brine lakes, minerals (bischofite) are widely used in the composition of cosmetic products. The ability to influence the formulations stability and the sensory properties of cosmetics products is the specificity of this materials group, which creates certain difficulties in the development of a composition. The polymers’ use as gelling agents and thickeners is one of the means of formulations stability improving.The aim was scientific and technical literature review of the polymers assortment used in cosmetics with natural mineral salts, their application in the cosmetic compositions and the influence of mineral salts on the properties of polymers solutions.Materials and methods. Resources such as eLIBRARY, PubMed, Cyberleninca, as well as the websites of the manufacturers and suppliers of auxiliary materials, and finished cosmetic products were used to obtain the data.Results and discussion. Analysis of literature data and technical information suggests that cellulose derivatives, xanthan gum, and polyvinylpyrrolidone and carbomer are the most commonly used polymers in cosmetic compositions with natural mineral salts. These substances carry out functions of gelling agents, stabilizers, emulsifiers, binders, sensorial modifier agents. There is insufficient information about the interaction of polymers with the natural mineral salts and their influence on polymers properties in scientific and technical literature. The complexity and uniqueness of the composition of natural salts also represents certain difficulty in the evaluation of the interaction.Conclusion. Thus, regularities and peculiarities of natural mineral salts influence on the stability of solutions of polymers used in cosmetics as thickeners and gelling agents, is a promising direction of modern pharmaceutical practices study. 
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(2):98-116
pages 98-116 views


Daironas J.V., Zilfikarov I.N., Vandyshev V.V., Miroshnikova E.A.


The results of a morphological and anatomical study of granules from the epidermis of Plantago ovata seeds are presented in the article. Morphological and microscopic diagnostic signs are important for establishing the authenticity of medicinal plant material and drugs made from it.The aim is the identification of morphological and microscopic diagnostic characteristics of the seed epidermis of Plantago ovata, minimal and sufficient to establish the authenticity of the granular pieces of the plant’s epidermis.Materials and methods. The study of morphological and anatomical characteristics as well as histochemical study were conducted according to the procedures of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation XIII edition. Microscope “Micromed-1” and digital camera MD300 Electronic Eyepiece (Jincheng) were used. Photos were edited in Adobe Photoshop CS6.Results and discussion. Morphological signs of the epidermis of Plantago ovata seeds include its light yellow or pinkish-yellow color and a presence of a pigmented spot of pink or light brown color on the epidermis of the convex side of the seeds and along the seed. These signs are applicable for diagnosis and are also found in crushed raw materials. Granules are rough lumps, consisting of stuck together epidermis pieces. They are characterized by a yellowish or light brown color and the presence of a pigmented spot. The microscopic diagnostic signs include the structure of the upper and lower epidermis, the presence of cells with mucus and starch grains. The upper epidermis consists of large polygonal cells with straight thin anticlinal walls. The cells are covered with a smooth cuticle and are filled with mucus. The lower epidermis consists of elongated rectangular cells. Cells with mucus swell rapidly in the radial direction. Biometric characteristics of anatomical diagnostic signs were established.Conclusion. As the result of a morphological and anatomical study the diagnostic signs of the raw material and granules of Plantago ovata seed husks were established. The structure of epidermal cells filled with mucus, starch grains and the presence of fragments of the inner pigment layer of the skin and endosperm belong to them. The obtained results are consistent with the literature data. It can be used in the development of a normative document for granules of Plantago ovata seed husks. 
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(2):117-134
pages 117-134 views


Zagorulko E.Y., Ozhigova M.G.


The article describes approaches to standardization of chamomile flowers in European Pharmacopoeia, British Pharmacopoeia, United States Pharmacopoeia, and State Pharmacopoeia thirteenth edition (SP XIII).The aim of this work is to analyze the quality requirements among Russian pharmacopoeia and foreign pharmacopoeias for medicinal plant raw material (MPRM) – chamomile flowers.Materials and methods. Monographs about chamomile flowers, which are found in the current editions of the Russian pharmacopoeia and the world’s major pharmacopoeias were the objects of the study. A comparative analysis of the quality parameters specified in the monographs was carried out. Quality requirements for the essential oil and fluid extract of chamomile given in the European and British pharmacopoeias were also analyzed.Results and discussion. Some differences in the approaches to the standardization of chamomile flowers in the pharmacopoeias of different countries were revealed. SP XIII contains a more detailed description of the diagnostic signs of this MPRM and its impurities. According to the SP XIII, flavonoids are the main groups of biologically active substances (BAS) for MPRM identification, while other pharmacopoeias declare essential oil as a main BAS of chamomile flowers. Meanwhile, the composition of the essential oil components is different in European, British, and the United States Pharmacopeias. There is a tendency for the foreign pharmacopoeias to quantify the individual compounds, whereas in SP XIII chamomile flowers are standardized by the amount of BAS of different groups. The differences in the BAS determination approaches could be apparently explained by the chemical composition diversity of chamomile flowers. It should be mentioned that quality requirements of MPRM are of great importance either in the process of plant-based drugs development or when individual compounds extraction is performed.Conclusion. Thus the greatest differences between the chamomile flowers parameters have SF XIII and the foreign pharmacopoeias. SF XIII has the most detailed description of diagnostic signs of the medicinal plant raw material and the impurities in it. For the foreign pharmacopoeias there is a tendency to the quantitative analysis of the individual substances while in SF XIII chamomile flowers are standardized upon a sum of biologically active substances. 
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(2):135-149
pages 135-149 views


Nasuhova N.M., Shevchuk O.M., Logvinenko L.A.


Laurus nobilis L. is an evergreen dioecious, rarely monecious plant up to 15 m high. Its natural area includes Mediterranean countries. For a long time this plant has been actively cultivated as a decorative plant in (Europe, Russia, USA and others) as well as in Turkey, Algeria, Morocco, Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, Mexico and Russia. Chemical composition of the Laurus leaves include essential oil components, sesquiterpenic lactones and phenolic compounds as the principal active groups of compounds.The aim of the study was the identification of phenolic compounds in water and water alcohol extracts from leaves of Laurus nobilis.Materials and methods. Examinations of qualitative composition of phenolic complex in extracts from Laurus samples under study were carried out using «Hitachi Chromaster» high-performance liquid chromatographer with «Column Oven 5310», «Pump 5110» and «UV-detector 5410».Results and discussion. The samples of Laurus nobilis leaves gathered in outskirts of Alushta (Republic of Crimea) in July 2016 were the objects if the study. We identified caffeic, gallic, and chicoric acids, epigallocatechin gallate, luteolin-7-glycoside in the extracts obtained using ethanol 70%. And caffeic, gallic, isoferulic acids, dicoumarin, epicatechin, kaempferol, and isoquercitrin in ethanol 40% extracts. In water extracts we found the presence of ascorbic, gallic, and vanillic acids, epicatechin, quercetin-3-glycoside and kaempferol-3-galactoside.Conclusion. As the result of the Laurus nobilis leaves samples study, gathered in Alushta outskirts, ascorbic acid and 13 phenolic compounds were identified in water and water-alcohol (40% and 70%) extracts using high performance liquid chromatography. Isoferulic and chicoric acids, epigallocatechin gallate, dicoumarin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-galactoside and luteolin-7-glycoside were identified in Laurus nobilis leaves for the first time. 
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(2):150-163
pages 150-163 views


Mussabayeva B.H., Murzagulova K.B., Kim M.E., Izumrudov V.A., Aripzhanova Z.Z.


The problem of drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment is complex and urgent: the standardof treatment includes the oral administration of six names of antibiotics, i.e. up totwenty tablets a day by the patient. This causes severe side effects, including those appeareddue to the formation of toxic products of drug interactions in the body. Therefore, itis important that some drugs dissolve in a stomach, and others – in the intestine, which willlead to increased bioavailability, reduced dosage and toxicity. The development of targeteddelivery systems for drugs with controlled release, targeted delivery and minimization ofside effects are of interest. One of the promising methods is polyelectrolytic multilayersand the technology of creating such layers by a step-by-step adsorption of heterogeneouslycharged polyelectrolytes.The aim of this article is the microencapsulation of anti-tuberculousdrugs into biopolymers coated with polyelectrolytic multilayers, and the solubilitystudy of microcapsules at pH values simulating various parts of the gastrointestinal tract.Materials and methods. Drugs as isoniazide, pyrazinamide, moxifloxacin, and biopolymers:gellan, pectin and sodium alginate, chitosan and dextran sulfate, as well as EudragitS are used to prepare microcapsules. The obtained microcapsules are studied by a methodof scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative determination of the effectiveness of the inclusionof drugs in microcapsules was carried out using pharmacopoeial methods.Results and discussion. The inclusion efficiency rises with an increase of biopolymer concentration. The inclusion efficiency increases in the row isoniazide
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(2):164-176
pages 164-176 views


Timchenko T.V., Blinov A.V., Serov A.V., Shcherbakova L.I., Kompantsev V.A., Мarkova O.M., Medvetskiy A.I., Platonova A.Y.


Nanopharmacology is a set of methods and techniques used in the creation, study, production and use of nanostructures (size about 1–700 nm) with new chemical, physical, and biological properties. For a long time pharmacologists have been working on molecular, and sometimes even on a submolecular level for synthesizing new drugs and explaining their mechanism of action. Thanks to this, the interest of pharmacology in nanotechnology is connected with new ways of obtaining and using medicines. One way of obtaining new forms of drugs is the synthesis of nanoparticles, since they allow the active substance to overcome the protective barriers of the body such as, for example, the immune system. Due to the fact that the surface of nanoparticles (nanocapsules) is multilayered, their resistance to the action of the protective mechanisms of the body increases, which allows the drug to retain the activity of the pharmacological action, as well as its structure for a longer time. The possibility of penetration through biological barriers, tissue-specificity, rate of drug release depends largely on the size and surface properties of nanoparticles.The aim of our study was to study the influence of such important factors as time, homogenization rate and the type of surface active substance, on the size of the obtained nanoparticles of pentoxifylline based on poly-DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA).Materials and methods. The research was carried out using the information retrieval database (PubMed), as well as the results of our own research.Results and discussion. It has been found that the dispersion phase of the sample, in which polyvinyl alcohol was used as the surfactant, had the smallest size, particularly, the average hydrodynamic radius of the particles amounted to 175.4 nm. The influence of the speed and time of homogenization on the size of nano particles of pentoxifylline based on PLGA was experimentally proved. Also, microphotographs of nanoparticles of pentoxifylline based on poly-DL-lactide-coglycolide (PLGA) are presented.Conclusion.Our studies prove the effect of the speed and time of homogenization, as well as the type of surfactant, on the size of nanoparticles of pentoxifylline based on poly-DL-lactide-co-glycolide. As a result of the studies, the procedure for obtaining nanoparticles of pentoxifylline was adjusted. 
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2017;5(2):177-194
pages 177-194 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies