No 3 (2019)

Plant growing
Ecological stability of varieties of winter rye with various type of a short-stem
Goncharenko A.A., Makarov A.V., Ermakov S.A., Semenova T.V., Tochilin V.N., Tsygankova N.V., Skatova S.E., Krakhmaleva O.A.
Abstract

Results 10 years' (2008-2017) comparative studying of varieties of winter rye with recessive-polygenic (the first group) and dominant- monogenic (the second group) short-stem type are presented. In each group tested 5 varieties which estimated on 6 traits: productivity, winter hardiness, plant height, weight is 1000 grains, number of falling and viscosity of water extract of grain meal. Determined by each trait: stability of a phenotype (SF), ecological variation (CV), ecological plasticity (bi), general (GAА) and specific (SAА) adaptive ability, selection value of a genotype (SVG). Average productivity on groups of varieties was identical (respectively 6,69 and 6,62 t/ha), however varieties with dominant-monogenic type of a short-stem  differed authentically in the best winter hardiness  of plants (for 6,3%) and had shorter stalk (on 9,3 cm). On the ecological variation of traits was influenced significantly by all three factors: weather conditions of year (75,5-95,0%), variety genotype (1,1-2,5%) and interaction variety x years (2,9-22,3%). The most strongly weather conditions of year influenced a productivity variation (86,3% for the first group and 95,0% for the second). On the trait of winter hardiness force of influence of a factor a variety x years was higher, than on other traits, and made respectively 9,3 and 22,3%. Ecological stability at varieties of the second group was twice higher (CV=12,4%), than at varieties of the first group (CV=24,3%). The conclusion is made that varieties of winter rye with a dominant-monogenic  short-stem have lower norm of reaction to the adverse conditions of a rewintering developing in years with a high snow cover. Therefore regions where the main limiting factor is the low rewintering because of strong defeat of plants a snow mold have to be the main area of cultivation of such varieties of  winter rye. The opinion is expressed that in the main winter rye regions of Russia it is expedient to cultivate  varieties of winter rye  with different types of a short-stem, but taking into account their agroecological specifics.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):3-9
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Genotype-environment interaction, productivity and adaptive potential of spring wheat varieties
Sapega V.A.
Abstract

The assessment of productivity and the parameters of adaptability allowed to use and perspective mid-season and mid-late varieties of spring wheat in the conditions of the Northern Trans-Ural region carried out. The varieties were tested in 2014-2016 on the steam predecessor in three climatic zones: subtaiga (II zone), northern forest-steppe (III zone) and southern forest-steppe (IV zone). The greatest interaction a genotype-environment is noted when calculating correlation dependence between productivity of varieties in various years of their test in the conditions of the southern forest-steppe zone (from r=-0,07±0.28 to r=0,41±0,25). Assessment of productivity and parameters of adaptability of spring wheat varieties in 9 environments (3 years x 3 GSU) has shown that Aviada allowed to use characterized the greatest maximum and average productivity in group of mid-season varieties (respectively 5,86 and 3,78 t/hectare), and in the mid-late group – a perspective Quintus (respectively 6,98 and 4,58 t/hectare). The considerable variability of productivity is noted.  Its size was from 23,0 % (Ikar) to 29,9 % (Aviada) in group of mid-season varieties, and at the mid-late group – from 25,6 % (Riks) to 31,6 % (Quintus). Resistance to stress of varieties was low irrespective of group of their ripeness. Ikar (-2,32) had the greatest indicator of resistance to stress in group mid-season varieties, and in the mid-late group – Riks (-2,54). Aviada (4,24 t/hectare) was characterized the greatest average productivity in contrast conditions in mid-season group and in the mid-late group – Quintus (4,73 t/hectare). Three groups of varieties were allocated on responsiveness for change of conditions:  high responsiveness (mid-season – the Lutescens 70, Aviada; mid-late – the Melody, Quintus), plastic (mid-season – Chernyava 13, Skent 3, Omskaya 36, Tyumenskaya 25, Tyumenskaya 29; mid-late – Ingala, Yamalskaya) and poorly responsiveness (mid-season – Ikar, Sigma; mid-late – Riks, the Stepnaya Niva). The low gomeostasis is revealed at all varieties irrespective of group of ripeness. The variety Ikar (Hom=6,59) was the best on a gomeostasis in mid-season group, and at the mid-late group – Riks (Hom=5,48). In general all varieties were characterized by the low general adaptive ability (GAA). Its rather high values in group of mid-season varieties are revealed at Aviada (OAC=0,19), and at the  mid-late group – Quintus (OAC=0,50). Tyumenskaya 25 and Tyumenskaya 29 are recognized the best mid-season varieties in the conditions of the Northern Trans-Ural region on the basis of complex assessment of productivity and parameters of adaptability, and at the mid-late group – Melody and Ingala.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):10-15
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Influence of ecological and agrochemical factors on the level of soybean yield
Sinegovskaya V.T., Naumchenko E.T.
Abstract

The article presents the results of studies on the effectiveness of the use of mineral and organic-mineral fertilizer systems in a long-term stationary 5-course soy-grain crop rotation depending on agro-ecological factors. The goal of research is to study the effect of long-term application of mineral (annually N42 P48 kg of active ingredient / ha of crop rotation area) and organic-mineral (annually N24 P30 kg of active ingredient + 4.8 t of manure per 1 ha of crop rotation area) fertilizer system on the productivity of soybean in crop rotation. The objects of research were mid-ripening and early-ripening soybean varieties, preceding crops - annual grasses (soy-oat mixture) and spring wheat. The preceding crops, variety and hydrothermal conditions under which soybean was grown from 1963 to 2017 were considered as agro-ecological factors. It was established that the highest yield of soybean was obtained when placing soybean crops after wheat, while by the number of years, the yield level of 1,8 – 2,0 t/ha was repeated 16 % more often than when growing soybean after annual grasses. The maximum increase in yield relative to the control (0, 17 t/ha) was formed by the long-term use of organic-mineral fertilizer system for soybean cultivated after wheat. In cold wet years, the use of organic-mineral fertilizer system ensured plant resistance to unfavorable weather conditions, stimulating an increase in the soybean yield relative to the control by 0,18 t/ha. The most responsive to fertilizer application were the mid-ripening soybean varieties: the increase in grain yield amounted to 0,03 – 0,20 t/ha relative to the control, and the realization of potential yield of the variety increased by 2–7 %.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):16-18
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Breeding of spring turnip rape in the Western Siberia
Kuznetsova G.N., Polyakova R.S.
Abstract

The territory of the Western Siberia is very suitable for cultivation of cruciferous oil crops (rapeseed and turnip rape) by its biological-climatic potential and soil conditions. Oil crops are widely used for human nutrition, feeding of animals, in any industries and building industry, medicine and perfumery. These crops oil contains many unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) which are essential in human nutrition. The main task of turnip rape breeding is productivity increase; much attention is paid to oil increase in seeds and improvements of oil quality (low content of glucosinolates in seeds and erucic acid absence in oil). We presented brief characteristics of released turnip rape varieties: productivity (seed yield, oil content and oil yield) and fatty acid composition of oil. The created varieties are differed with their high adaptability to severe Siberian conditions and resistance to the main bio- and abiofactors of environments.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):19-21
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Mode of action of bacteria bacillus subtilis № 2 and humic preparation on fruit formation in sweet pepper
Pishchik V.N., Vorobyov N.I., Udalova O.R., Surin V.G., Khomyakov Y.V., Popov A.A.
Abstract

The effectivity of action of bacteria Bacillus subtilis № 2 and humic preparation Stimulife on yield and fruit formation in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in technologies of separated and joint use was studied. It was established that the use of bacteria Bacillus subtilis № 2 led to a decrease in the coefficient of variation in the mass of the leaves of the pepper plants and the coefficient of variation in the masses of the fruits of the plants. The maximum directivity of action of the preparations studied was revealed with the help of graph analysis. The action of bacteria Bacillus subtilis № 2 is directed on increasing the number of leaves of pepper plants, HP Stimulife - on reducing the vegetative period of plants, and joint application – on increasing the number of fruits on a single plant. In factor analysis, it was shown that a negative synergistic effect appeared with respect to chlorophyll (а+b) and the duration of the growth stages when Bacillus subtilis № 2 and HP Stimulife were combined used. The variety differences in the reactions of pepper plants to the preparations used were revealed.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):22-27
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Plants defence
Mycotoxicological study of feed corn grain (1998-2018)
Kononenko G.P., Burkin A.A., Zotova E.V., Smirnov A.M.
Abstract

For corn grain traded in the country's forage production sector over the past two decades, enzyme immunoassay showed persistent contamination with toxins of fusarium fungi, more often T-2 / HT-2 toxins, fumonisins, and more rarely with deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in quantities that pose risks of animal intoxication. The cases of superintensive accumulation of cyclopiazonic acid, citrinin, mycophenolic acid and ochratoxin A. were revealed. In 2016-2018 For maize grain from 4 subjects of the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation, a significant prevalence of T-2 / HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins was found with fluctuations in the frequency of occurrence of zearalenone over the years, diacetoxyscirpenol was detected in several samples from the Kursk and Voronezh regions. Contamination of grain with alternariol in 2016 and 2017 was mild both in frequency (5.3%) and accumulation levels (20–85 µg / kg), but in the collection of 2018, the proportion of samples containing this toxin was 40.7% with a content range of 25 295 µg / kg. The influence of soil and climatic factors on the nature of mycotoxin contamination of corn grain crops, the contribution of fungi belonging to dark-colored hyphomycetes and the prevailing variants of combined contamination with fusariotoxins are discussed.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):28-31
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Phytopathology
The impact of pesticides used in greenhouses, on the predatory mite neoseiulus californicus (parasitiformes, phytoseiidae)
Glinushkin A.P., Yakovleva I.N., Meshkov Y.I.
Abstract

Nine commercial pesticides  currently used in Russian greenhouses against pests (aphids, thrips, whiteflies) were selected to determine their toxicity to  predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor in order to find out the potential  use him affected by chemical treatments Vertimec (abamectin), Fitoverm (aversectin C), Clipper (bifenthrin), Novaction (malation), Oberon (spiromesifen), Bitoxibacillin (Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis), Actara (tiametoxam), Admiral (piriproxifen), Confidor (imidacloprid), Mospilan (acetamiprid). The recommended concentration of the preparation (T), half the concentration (1/2T), and a double concentration (2T) were used on the female mite in the experiments. The side effects of the pesticides applied to the predator mite were determined one, three, and five days after the application. The recommended concentration of the preparation of Vertimec, Fitoverm and Clipper showed a higher toxic effect on N. californicus femails (mortality rate 100%). The obtained data reveals the impossibility of their joint application with the release of N. californicus. The toxic effects of Mospilan, Confidor, Admiral, Actara, Bitoxibacillin and Novaktion on N. californicus females were a low level (mortality of females 0-16,6%). The present study confirms that the use of predatory mite N. californicus in combination with these pesticides prospectively in Integrated Pest Management in Russian greenhouse conditions.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):32-34
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Pedology
Sustainability of the agroecosystem in the application of fertilizers and biopreparations
Alferov A.A., Chernova L.S.
Abstract

The formation of biomass of spring wheat on sod-podzolic soil is mainly due to soil nitrogen, the share of which reaches 4/5 of the total removal of the element when using mineral fertilizers. Inoculation increases the nitrogen content of fertilizers by 4.5%, reduces losses by 7%; there is some tendency to increase the immobilization of N fertilizers. The sustainability of the agroecosystem is characterized by nitrogen flows. During the growing season of spring wheat, the amount of mineralized nitrogen depending on the fertilizer reached 17.4-18.0 g/m2, while the amount of remobilized nitrogen was 4.4-4.9 g/m2, net-mineralization (N-M) – 13.1 g/m2. The inoculation of RA seeds does not significantly affect the processes of mineralization (M) and remobilization (RI), only a positive trend of growth of mineralization and remobilization of nitrogen in the soil is observed. The use of nitrogen fertilizer leads agroecosystem in a resistant state-the zone of the maximum permissible level of exposure (RI:M=25%, N-M:RI=3.0). On average, over the years of research, inoculation of RA seeds does not change the indicators of sustainability of agroecosystem when applying fertilizers.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):35-37
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Biological activity of sod-podzolic soils in the long term experiment with different agrotechnical methods
Kovalevskaya N.P., Zavyalova N.E., Sharavin D.Y., Fomin D.S.
Abstract

The effect of long-term application of grain-fallow-plow crop rotation with various legume densities, permanent cultivation of winter rye and barley, continuous bare fallow on the ecological and physiological state of the microbial community of sod-podzolic heavy loam soil was investigated. Biological activity indexes of soil microbiocenoses such as potential intensity of СО2 emission, microbial biomass gross respiration rate, metabolic coefficient, nitrogen fixation were assessed. It has been shown that the best humus state of soil and significant increase in the total nitrogen content provides the introduction of organic fertilizer (manure) in the “Crop rotation of 28,6% of legumes”. The ratio of the microbial biomass in sod-podzolic heavy loam soil organic matter varies from 1,50 to 3,24%. Application of mineral fertilizers leads to insignificant decrease in the carbon content of microbial biomass and raising of labile organic carbon. The decrease of metabolic activity in microbial communities has been determined in all variants of long-term study regardless of agrotechnical techniques. It has been established that permanent intensive cultivation of crops either with or without crop rotation leads to stability interference of the Cis-Urals soil microbiocenosis.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):38-41
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Economics
Comparative analysis of efficiencyof agricultural manufacture of various forms of economy
Voitleva Z.A.
Abstract

The possibility of solving the urgent problem of increasing the efficiency of agriculture in Russia by improving the organizational and economic structure of the agrarian economy of the regions, suggesting an increase in the number of agricultural producers of those forms of management that demonstrate greater efficiency and a decrease in the number of farms of less efficient forms of management. The author describes the method developed by the author for a comparative comprehensive analysis of the efficiency of agricultural production in economic entities of various forms of business, as well as its use on the example of one of the regions of Russia - the Republic of Adygea. It emphasizes the need for such an analysis at the regional level, since the regions of Russia differ in climatic and production-economic conditions, established traditions, living and other conditions of villagers, and, according to the author, these regional features affect the results of the analysis. The results of the analysis allow to determine the direction of changes in the existing organizational and economic structure of the agrarian economy of a particular region, which can contribute to the increase in the efficiency of agricultural production, and to develop appropriate measures by the executive authorities.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):42-46
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Animal husbandry
Characteristics of romanov breed locus bmp-15, responsible for prolificacy of the sheep
Marzanov N.S., Maluchenko O.P., Koreckaja E.A., Marzanova S.N., Marzanova L.K., Timoshenko Y.I., Feizullaev F.R.
Abstract

The article deals with the actual problem, the diagnostics of the prolificacy gene in sheep of the Romanov breed. The new method for the diagnostics of the polymorphic gene of the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15), which causes the multiple pregnancy in the Romanov sheep, has been proposed based on the carried out surveys. The frequencies of occurrence of the normal (wild type) and mutant alleles responsible for the multiple pregnancy-related locus and the genotypes in the sheep are present. The economic indicators including the numbers of newborn lambs, the lambs at winning, and the dry and culled ewes were recorded with taking into consideration the genotypes of the BMP-15 locus. The relationships between the frequency of occurrence and the number of the produced posterity and between the dry and culled Romanov ewes were ascertained. It was proved that the highest percentage of the lamb output at birth to weaning was typical for the ewes homozygous (MM) for a mutant allele. The animals referred to as heterozygous genotypes (WM) appeared to be in the second position. With respect to the wild genotype, the highest percentage of the culled and dry ewes was recorded in the carriers of the WW homozygote. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the genotype frequency at the BMP-15 locus should be taken into account while estimating the fertility of the ewes. Therefore, the further researches into the determined phenomena in the Romanov sheep are required to improve this item, since the multi-fetal pregnancy is recorded in some ewes of group WW.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):47-50
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Effect of infusion of serratula coronate on the metabolism and growth young sheep
Zharikov Y.A., Volodina S.O., Volodin V.V., Kaneva L.A.
Abstract

The influence of water infusion of sickle leaves (Serratula coronata) on the growth of young sheep and biochemical profile of blood serum was studied. Against the background of protein deficiency and excessive fiber feeding, a positive trend of increasing the growth rate of lambs depending on the daily dose of the infusion of the sickle was revealed. Young animals, receiving 300 and 400 ml of infusion per day, increased their live weight for two months of experience by 1,68 and 1,86 kg more control, or 17,9 and 19,9%, respectively (p ≥ 0,05). An increase in serum albumin and A/G coefficient to 24% (p ≥ 0,05) while reducing urea to 28% (p ≤ 0,05). It is shown that under the influence of ecdysteroids there is a tendency to normalize the level of glucose in the blood of young animals as a result of the activation of gluconeogenesis due to the reamination of amino acids. This was confirmed by an increase in the activity of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase. The obtained data on the multifaceted metabolic effects of the infusion of sickle crowned allow us to recommend it as a feed additive that increases the growth rate of young sheep.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):51-53
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Modern technologies of robotized cowing milk
Kiselev L.Y., Kamalov R.A., Borisov M.Y., Fedoseeva N.A., Sanova Z.S.
Abstract

The studies were conducted in the conditions of LLC “Milk Group” of Sukhinichsky district of Kaluga region. The object of research is robotic milking machines, Swedish breed cows and Danish red breeds. Equality of development of the front and rear lobes, the udder index, the average milk flow rate and the frequency of delivery can be achieved only with long-term selection by type, good severity of signs of milkiness. Based on the selection of cows for milking on a robotized milking plant, the following requirements were put forward: high milk productivity and milk yield, tightly attached udder, nipples of the same size, the lower point of which should not be below 33 cm from the floor level, the minimum distance between the rear nipples in 3 cm, between the front nipples - 12.5 - 30 cm, the thickness of the nipples in the range of 1.5-3.5 cm, the rear nipples should be located 3 cm lower than the lower part of the udder, the minimum distance between the front and rear These udder teats - 7 cm, an angle of deviation from vertical teats should not exceed 30 °. The main reasons for the insignificant loss of milk during robotic milking are the milking of cows that do not have a full-fledged milk-giving reflex or the reflex was inhibited at the beginning of the milking of milk with a delay in putting the teat on the teats of the udder. The size of one-time milk yield, with the exception of the program indicators of this restriction on the milk yield, is determined by the frequency of effective visits to the robot (i.e., the multiplicity of milking during the day). In robotic milking, the frequency of milkings varies by day periods relatively little and drops to a minimum only in the second half of the night, in our opinion, due to the relatively late distribution of feed mixtures. It is also noted that cows of all ages have the same number of milkings on a robotized unit within 2 times.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):54-57
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Veterinary science
Details of the release of antistress properties of a biologically active iodine in a chicken embryos
Indyuhova E.N., Azarnova T.O., Maksimov V.I.
Abstract

The physiological and biochemical effects of transovarial treatment by using biologically active iodine were examined with and without impact of extreme irritant on chicken and hen embryos which are the most popular model systems for investigations of the drug mechanism of action in the veterinary science and the medical science. The increasing functional activity of thyroid of chickens from an experienced team in the first days of life was investigated and analysed. The level of iodothyronines is higher in chickens under the action of heat stress factor: T3 total – 1.3 times, T3 free – of 20.9%, and T4 total”– of 23.2%, T4 free – 1.3 times compared with the control. There was an activation of the antioxidant defense system of the body in day-old chickens from the 2nd experimental group against the background of optimization of thyroid status, which resulted in a significant increase in the antioxidant activity of the blood serum compared to that in the control group 1.3 times, indicated a decrease in the level of: lipids, containing isolated double bonds – of 8.8%, diene conjugates – 1.4 times, triene conjugates - of 16.3%, oxodienic conjugates – 1.5 times and Schiff bases – 1.4 times. The central aspects of the iodothyronine mechanism of action at high intensity of free radical reactions and, consequently lipid peroxidation are presented in framework form. The results of the study will make possible the use of the drug products based on this chemical element for veterinarians and health workers. The more stressors affect the bird's body, the higher efficacy of the release of antioxidant properties is in thyroid hormones.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):58-63
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Morphological characteristics of the oocyte–cumulus complexes bos taurus and bos indicus of different purpose productivity
Rotar L.N., Souza J.F.
Abstract

In the technology of in vitro embryo production in bovines, qualitative and quantitative indicators of the initial population of viable oocytes determine the successful output of blastocysts suitable for native embryotransfer or vitrification Therefore the study of reproductive potential of cows Bos taurus and Bos indicus (zebu cattle) of different directions of productivity by the method of assessing the quality and quantity of oocytes is of scientific and practical interest. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of Russian and Brazilian cattle on the yield of oocyte–cumulus complexes (OCC) and their morphological characteristics in the populations of dairy and beef cattle productivity. The following samples of cows were formed:  Aberdeen–Angus breed n=82 (Russian Federation);  black–and–white breed n=62 (Russian Federation); Nelore n=149 (Brazil);  Gir n=63 (Brazil). The material of the study was oocyte–сumulus complexes obtained in the result of transvaginal puncture of follicles (transvaginal aspiration of oocytes TAO, ovum pick–up OPU). The quality of OCC was assessed by the following morphological parameters: the presence of cumulus layer and its quality, oocytes size, homogeneity and color of ooplasm, turgor. The number of viable OCC from the total amount is: Aberdeen Angus 67.15%; black–mottled 42%; Nelore 83.9%; Gir 71,4%.  Thus, Bos indicus (zebu cattle) is more promising for the technology of production embryos in vitro, as it exceeds Bos taurus by more than 2 times in the output of oocytes, both in the group of beef cattle and in the group of dairy.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):64-67
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Mechanisation
Technology of soil treatment in the rows of plantings seedlings and seedlings of forest and horticultural crops
Semenenko S.Y., Abezin V.G., Bespalova O.N., Ageenko O.M.
Abstract

Analysis of the level of mechanization in the cultivation of soil in the planting of seedlings and seedlings of forest and garden crops necessary for the destruction of weeds, soil content in the loose state, making the root layer of the soil of nutrients, etc., revealed that inter-row processing has a 100% level. However, it remains untreated rows of plants that includes the protection zone, which requires to perform operations on rows in significant expenditures of manual labor, constituting 40...50 people/hour in 1 hectare. The optimum variant of technology of planting care of seedlings seedlings of forest and horticultural crops would be the conversion of cultivators KRN working body, allows to conduct processing of soil in the rows of plants. At the same time, operations of soil treatment are carried out both in row and row spacing. All known methods of tillage in a row require the use of special working bodies that provide loosening of the soil in a row and cutting weeds. Such working bodies should provide the necessary protective zone around the plants. The developed design of the working body is installed on the row cultivator KRN over the processed row, which provides one-time processing of row spacing and rows. The article presents the results of theoretical studies of a special working body.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(3):68-71
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