Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Access granted  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Vol 5, No 2 (2023)

Cover Page

Full Issue

Open Access Open Access
Restricted Access Access granted
Restricted Access Subscription Access


Worldview, Thinking and History

Gerasimov G.I.


The goal of this article is to find out the influence of worldview on thinking and historical writing. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study is the author's idealistic approach. The article shows the influence of worldview on the process of thinking and creating an image of the past. The role of ideas in the process of perception of the external world, the formation of experience and imagination is determined. The dependence of the way of thinking on the dominant worldview in the mind of the historian is substantiated. The possibility and conditions for understanding the thinking and logic of people of a certain historical era are revealed. The characteristics of the ways of thinking in different worldview eras are given. The influence of the worldview on the historical actions of people is clarified, and the concept of subjective-objective reality is substantiated. In conclusion, the author concludes that the way of thinking and its logic are determined by the dominant worldview. The worldview and the corresponding way of thinking determine the historical activity of a person, therefore the main task of the historian in creating an image of the past is to understand what ideas underlay historical action.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):13-22
pages 13-22 views

Confessional Strategy of the Russian State in Social Interaction with Muslims of the North Caucasus (Late XVIII — Early XIX Centuries)

Bleich N.O.


The publication analyzes the confessional-legal policy of the Russian state regarding Muslims in the situation of including the North Caucasus in the orbit of influence. On the basis of both known and little-studied archival and documentary materials, it is proved that the time lag of the late 18th — early 19th centuries. is the initial stage of the state-legal coordination of the theocratic strategy, which is taking shape in the region in the conditions of modernization and wartime. The following methods were involved in the study of the topic: historical-chronological, problem-systemic, retrospective. At the same time, all facts and events are presented in accordance with the specific historical situation, in their correlation and the specifics of the socio-political situation. The practical significance of the work lies in the fact that without taking into account the historical experience of implementing the reform potential in Muslim areas, it will be difficult for modern Russia to achieve positive economic, legal and socio-cultural development in the Caucasus. The materials presented in the work can be useful for fundamentalizing the experience of the Islamic policy of Russia, developing its most appropriate modifications.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):23-29
pages 23-29 views


On the Question of the Creation and the Beginning of the Functioning of the Military School of Russia at the End of the XVII — First Quarter of the XVIII Century

Benda V.N.


The history of military educational institutions dates back to the time of Peter the Great and is an important page in the social history of the origin and development of education in Russia. Artillery and engineering military educational institutions and the School of Mathematical and Navigation Sciences were among the first special educational institutions that performed an important state task of training command personnel and specialists in the field of naval, artillery and engineering. The article traces the history of the creation and subsequent development during the first quarter of the XVIII century of individual elements of the national system of military personnel training. The already known individual information and data concerning military educational institutions that functioned in the XVIII century are supplemented and expanded by poorly studied materials and archival sources that have not been introduced into scientific circulation. Attention is focused on certain aspects of the organization of the educational process and daily life in them. The author concludes that despite all the difficulties that the state and military administration had to face when establishing and launching the first military special schools, their further functioning in the first quarter of the XVIII century marked a new stage in the development of domestic military special education and enlightenment. Previously unpublished sources are introduced into scientific circulation.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):30-38
pages 30-38 views

Dynamics of Animal Husbandry Production in the Sverdlovsk region in the First Post-war Years (1946-1950)

Motrevich V.P., Mamyachenkov V.N.


The article analyzes the dynamics of the gross production of the main livestock products in the Sverdlovsk region in one of the most interesting and problematic periods in the history of the Soviet state. The novelty of the study is ensured by the use of mostly unpublished materials from five state and departmental archives. The paper studies the dynamics of livestock production in monetary and natural (honey, milk, meat, wool, eggs) types in 1946–1950, a comparative analysis is carried out with the results of the development of the industry on the eve and at the end of the Great Patriotic War. It has been established that animal husbandry in the Sverdlovsk region emerged from the war in a better condition than in the whole country, and the most difficult years for it were 1946–1947. Starting from 1948, there was an increase in the production of meat, milk, wool and eggs in the region. As a result, in the five post-war years, the gross output of the industry in the Sverdlovsk region in value terms increased by more than a quarter. At the same time, during the years of the fourth five-year plan, the average annual production in the industry significantly exceeded the level of both 1945 and 1940. It was established that the main producer in animal husbandry were individual farms of the population, which accounted for almost 2/3 of the products received. The authors come to the conclusion that this happened, despite the various restrictions of the state on its development. A feature of the Sverdlovsk region in those years was the fact that among all categories of producers, the farms of workers and employees provided the most livestock products, which can be explained by the industrial specialization of the territory and the high proportion of the urban population in it.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):39-47
pages 39-47 views


State Policy in the Field of Computer Technology Development in the 1950s: Achievements and Blocking Factors

Bodrova E.V., Kalinov V.V., Efremenko V.V.


The purpose of the publication, based on currently declassified documents, is to investigate the actual problem of the evolution of state policy in the field of computer technology development in the USSR in the 1950s. The conclusion is formulated that the «cold war», the unfolding scientific and technological revolution stimulated the implementation of their own projects in the field of information technology and hardware platforms in the USSR. A significant factor that determined the creation of various domestic computers in the early 1950s was the support at the state level of developments independent of Western analogues. The continuous growth in demand for calculating machines and the release in 1956 of a number of government decisions on the creation of new types of such machines forced the leadership of various departments to take urgent measures to accelerate the development of the mathematical engineering industry. In the period from 1955 to 1957, samples of high-performance computing and mathematical machines were created. A number of them were sent to mass production. Computer centers were created on the basis of new computer technology. However, in general, the development of computer technology in the country lagged behind the United States. The documents allow us to identify a number of factors that determined the braking of this process: the industrial management reform being carried out at that time, the departmental approach, the lack of understanding by the country's leadership of the special significance of this area of industrial and scientific and technical policy, the absence of a single center coordinating this work. The Scientific Council on Computer Technology and Control Systems of the State Committee of the USSR Academy of Sciences for Science and Technology and the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences was established only in 1966.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):48-56
pages 48-56 views

Economic Science and Development of Natural Resources of the Ural North (1940–2000s)

Belyaev V.N., Bersenev V.L., Loginov V.G.


Economists UFAN — UC AS USSR — Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences contributed to the development of the Ural North. Since the 1940s, they participated in the development of projects for the construction of railways that would connect the metallurgical enterprises of the Urals with Pechora coal basin, assessed deposits of non-ferrous and rare metals, etc. The article reveals the reasons why the railroad along the Ural Range was never built. At the same time using a large factual material the article shows how the wealth of the Urals due to a professional economic evaluation was involved in economic development and significantly enriched the production potential of the region.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):57-66
pages 57-66 views

The Copper Industry of the Urals in the Period of Transitional Economy: (Late 1990s — Early 2000s)

Zapariy V.V.


The article is written on a topic not very popular among historians, dedicated to the most important branch of non-ferrous metallurgy, copper, in one of the leading metallurgical regions in Russia — the Urals. The issues of the industry's exit from the most powerful crisis associated with the transition from a planned to a market economy are considered. The changes that have taken place in the non-ferrous metallurgy sub-sector in the context of the formation of new market structures are shown. When writing the article, data from the Union of Entrepreneurs of the Sverdlovsk Region were used.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):67-71
pages 67-71 views

Demographic Censuses as a Source on the Number of Armenians in the Tyumen Region

Arakelian A.V.


The article analyzes materials about Armenian immigrants to the Tyumen region in the XIX — early XXI centuries. The general population censuses are chosen as the source. The opinion is expressed about the reasons for the migration of Armenians to the Tyumen region. It is concluded that the methodology of population accounting in the pre-revolutionary, Soviet and post-Soviet periods differed significantly. For the first time, data on Armenian immigrants to the Tyumen region were taken into account in the materials of the first General Population Census of 1897, during which the task of studying the national composition of the country was set for the first time. In addition to the number of Armenians, the scribes recorded their gender and religious composition. During the All — Union Population censuses 1926, 1937, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979 In 1989, not only the dynamics of the number of Armenians in the Tyumen region were taken into account, but also their gender composition, as well as the division into urban and rural populations. In the post-Soviet population censuses of 2002, 2010 and 2020-2021, the number of measured indicators decreased. The specifics of taking into account the national composition during the census of 2020–2021 was that data were taken into account for those who named their nationality themselves. The literature indicates the relative comparability of data from individual censuses. It is concluded that an accurate comparison of information about Armenians according to censuses is not possible due to the serious changes that took place in the administrative-territorial division of the country at different times.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):72-80
pages 72-80 views


On the Problem of Social Reconstructions Based on the Materials of the Settlements of the Halaf Culture of the Eastern Euphrates

Bobrov V.V., Majar F.


In the Russian archeology an opinion about the egalitarian appearance of the Neolithic settlements of the Halaf culture in Northern Mesopotamia was established. An assumption about the correspondence of its social structure to the level of chiefdom was made. However, no special studies in this direction have been carried out until now. This article contains the experience of identifying of social information from the archaeological sources of settlements in North-Eastern Syria. Developing the idea of the multicomponent specific of large settlements, the data that the link of social unification was a large family community are showed. Modern knowledge about the settlements allow to suggest that leaders of large-family communities exercised control over the development of specific sections of the settlement. Rare structural elements in housing construction (stone foundation, different qualities of wall plastering, floor covering, stone paving of the yard), which were not in the tradition of the Halaf cultural population, allow to consider them as signs of property and social gradation. In Russian and foreign science, a high level of pottery production in the Halaf culture has been noted. It is noted that the formation of independent production activity began with pottery, whereas in the relatively northern territories of Eurasia, many centuries later, this process began with metallurgy. This constitutes a feature of the ancient history of Mesopotamia.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):81-86
pages 81-86 views

Everyday Life of Barnaul during the Great Patriotic War According to the Memories of Contemporaries

Skubnevsky V.A.


The daily life of Barnaul during the Great Patriotic War is considered based on private origin sources, primarily the memories. In total, the materials of 15 published memoirs were used, among the authors are ordinary citizens, both local residents and evacuees, industry workers and cultural figures, including theater actress Alice Koonen. The author of the article reveals aspects about the Barnaul appearance and landscaping during the Great Patriotic War, the construction of defense plants, the housing problem, the food supply to the population, the cultural space of the city in that period. In particular, evacuation to Barnaul of the famous Moscow Chamber Theater under the direction of A. Tairov, creation of the regional Philharmonic society, tours in the city of outstanding Soviet artists and creative collectives were considered. Contemporaries fixed in their memoirs the transformation processes of a provincial (in the pre-war period) city into a major industrial and cultural center. At the same time, the difficulties caused by wartime conditions are shown.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):87-92
pages 87-92 views


German Capital in the Korean Economy in the Late XIX — Early XX Centuries on the Example of the Activity of the Trading Company «Eduard Meyer & Co»

Musinova I.A.


The purpose of the research. The article examines the history of the trade expansion of German capital in East Asia, and, in particular, in Korea in the late XIX — early XX centuries on the example of the activities of one of the largest European trading houses «Eduard Meyer & Co». Conclusions. Until the middle of the XIX century, the German bourgeoisie wasn’t able to actively participate in colonial and semi-colonial trade expansion in non-European countries, it has begun only with the development of capitalism in the country. The liberal bourgeoisie of the German Empire sought to open non-European markets and conduct business in the spirit of free trade and competition. This process is clearly visible on the example of the activities of the largest German trading company in East Asia called «Eduard Meyer &Co». Its trade expansion in Korea began in the 1880s, when P.G. von Möllendorf held influential posts in Korean government. The company has received numerous commercial projects from the Korean government, such as the supply of equipment for a new Korean coin, the sale of weapons, the construction of telegraph lines and the maritime transportation. After the resignation of P.G. von Möllendorff, «the Eduard Meyer & Co.» had to join the struggle for concessions and economically profitable projects along with other foreign companies in Korea, and this struggle did not always end in success. In difficult conditions of the company «Eduard Meyer & Co» managed to adapt its own trading model to the Korean realities, which has worked successfully for several decades.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):93-98
pages 93-98 views

Awards for Parents of Large in the Post-Soviet Countries

Zaitseva E.V., Kostina S.N.


In the modern period, the national states of the post-Soviet space are pursuing various policies regarding the support of large families. Having a common history of supporting large families in the Soviet period, countries implement various types of it, which largely depend on the current reproductive situation. One of the elements of the system of measures to support large families, along with payments and benefits, is the award policy, the purpose of which is to increase the status of large families in society. The award policy of states in support of large families does not often become the subject of scientific discourse, especially since there have been practically no works of a comparative nature in recent years. This article analyzes the features of the award policy of the national states of the post-Soviet space in relation to large families. As a result of the analysis, the main differences in the award policy of nation states were identified by types of awards, conditions for receiving awards, and social and legal benefits that these awards provide. The conditions for receiving awards for large families include requirements for the recipient of the award (mother, father, family), including citizenship; number, status and age of children; as well as the behavioral features of the subject of receiving the award and his children.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):99-105
pages 99-105 views


Chemical Composition of Russian Copper Coins of the Imperial Period

Gizhevskii B.A., Prosnikova O.N., Naumov S.V.


The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition and assessment of the quality of the metal of Russian copper coins of the 18th–early 20th centuries. Coins of this period are common in museum and private collections. However, the problem of metal purity and features of its composition is practically not covered. These issues are of interest for understanding the development processes and assessing the state of the Russian non-ferrous metallurgy in this period and, in particular, the Ural copper industry, since this industry has been and still remains one of the leading ones in the Ural and a significant part of Russian copper coins were minted in Yekaterinburg. To determine the chemical composition of coin metal, a non-destructive method of metal analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, was used in the work. At the same time, the problem of the presence of a corrosive layer on the surface of coins, the removal of which is not always possible for reasons of the preservation of the artifact, is solved. A method for using X-ray fluorescence analysis is proposed taking into account the phase composition of the surface layer. It is shown that the purity of copper remained above 99% in the studied sample of coins, which characterizes the high level of the Russian copper industry in the 18th-19th centuries. The presence of natural micro impurities of various composition and concentration in copper indicates the use of metal from various sources. The paper shows the effectiveness of using X-ray fluorescence analysis to determine the chemical composition of the metal of coins, which contributes to a more complete attribution of artifacts. The approaches developed in this work can be useful in the study of artifacts based on copper alloys.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):106-112
pages 106-112 views

The History of the Rescue of the Monument of Industrial Heritage «Severskaya Domna» in the 1960-1980s

Lakhtionova E.S.


The article reconstructs the struggle of the inhabitants of two Ural cities — Sverdlovsk and Polevskoy — for the preservation of a unique monument of industrial heritage — the Severskaya blast furnace — in the 1960s–1980s. The sources for the study were unpublished archival materials, as well as information from the periodical press. The author analyzes the reasons that served as an impetus for this activity, which included a number of stages. The main actors of blast furnace museumification are considered. The author comes to the conclusion that the activities for the preservation of monuments of industrial heritage in the 1960s-1980s. was non-systematic, representing a network of inconsistent actions of different actors. Among the latter, the following should be singled out: representatives of the scientific community, educational institutions, members of the public organization «All-Russian Society for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments», local authorities, representatives of party cells, workers and veterans of the Seversky Pipe Plant. During the specified chronological period, the unique monument of the Sverdlovsk region was museumified twice, with a break for a fierce struggle for its preservation in the 1980s. By the beginning of the 1990s. it became only the second industrial site to undergo serious conservation work within the largest old industrial region of our country.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):113-119
pages 113-119 views


The Newest Historiography of Yekaterinburg-Sverdlovsk: To the 300th Anniversary of its Foundation

Kamynin V.D.


The article summarizes the results of the study in the literature of the XXI century of the history of Yekaterinburg-Sverdlovsk, celebrating its 300th anniversary in 2023. It is concluded that the modern period of studying the history of the city is qualitatively different from the previous historiographical tradition. The main difference is that in Soviet times and in the first post-Soviet decade, history was studied within the framework of a single dominant ideology.As a result of the emergence of new theoretical paradigms in the 21st century, the history of Yekaterinburg-Sverdlovsk is studied from the positions of various theoretical approaches. Following various scientific paradigms affects the problems of scientific research on the history of the city. The modern period of the study of history is distinguished by a variety of genres of research. There are scientific and popular studies designed for various categories of readers. Among the scientific research there are generalizing works on the history of the city; works devoted to various stages of its history; problem studies. The study of the history of the city is conducted in an interdisciplinary manner, historians, political scientists, cultural scientists, philologists, specialists in the field of urban studies make a great contribution to scientific study.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):120-127
pages 120-127 views


Citation and Reputation rating of Historians

Nefedov S.A.


The article is devoted to the analysis of the relationship between the citation of historians and the expertly determined reputation rating. Comparative shortcomings of scientometrics and expert assessments are noted. Using the scale of reputation ratings based on the results of a sociological survey conducted by M. M. Sokolov and the data of the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI), the author calculates the Spearman rank correlation coefficients between these indicators. At the same time, it turns out that there is no correlation between reputation with a five-year total citation according to the RSCI and citation (both general and five years) according to the core of the RSCI. A weak correlation of reputation with long-term total citation according to the RSCI is found, however, this correlation also becomes insignificant after the exclusion of the unique data of B. N. Mironov.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):128-132
pages 128-132 views


Valentina Dometjanovna Viktorova has been Exploring the Millennium for almost a Century: On her 90th Birthday

Panina S.N.


This article is dedicated to Valentina Dometjanovna's research activities on the occasion of her 90th birthday. Valentina Dometjanovna is a rare type of researcher: an archaeologist-philosopher. Her archaeological theory, «Scientific Research in Archaeology. Archaeology» and «The Thing and the Sign in Archaeology». She is the author of more than 180 scientific articles. During her life she conducted field research in the middle reaches of the Tura River, upstream and downstream of the Tavda River, on Andreevskoye Lake near Tyumen, on the island «Kamennye palatki» near the village of Palkino in the Zheleznodorozhny district of Yekaterinburg.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):133-138
pages 133-138 views


Review on the Book by R. V. Abyanov, M. A. Safarov «Temnikov: Fortress of Empires». M.: Publishing House «Chitay», 2022. 300 p.

Mokshina E.N.


The review contains the analysis of the book of tatar ethnographers and historians R. V. Abianov and M.A. Safarov devoted to the study of one of the groups of the tatar ethnos localized around the ancient city of Mordovia Temnikov. Temnikov fortress from the deep antiquity was an outpost on the territory of the northern limits of the tatar world. The material for the book was collected during the expeditions to this region where the authors made an attempt to analyze the ritual practices, sacred landscape, perception of neighbors, book culture and collective memory of the Temnikov Tatars on the basis of numerous testimonies of local residents.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):139-142
pages 139-142 views


Review on the Book of the Doctors of Historical Sciences I.N. Yurkina. Demidov First. Experience of Life Description. M. International Demidov Fund. 2021. 320 p. from ill.

Zapariy V.V.


The book was written by the famous Russian historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences I.N. Yurkin and is dedicated to the personality of the founder of the famous Demidov dynasty of industrialists, Nikita Demidov. The book provides new, refined data on this person, summarizes all previously published information about this person, and thus contributes to the development of our history and understanding of the role of personality in historical processes.

History and Modern Perspectives. 2023;5(2):143-146
pages 143-146 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies