Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences

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Current Issue

Vol 3, No 2 (2021)

Articles

THE RUSSIAN PRISONERS OF WAR DURING SEVEN YEARS’ WAR: TO STATEMENT OF A PROBLEM
Anisimov M.Y.
Abstract
The article is based on the still rare and scattered data on situation of the Russian prisoners in the Prussian captivity during Seven years’ war of 1756-1763. On the basis of the published memoirs and single archival documents the author draws a conclusion on difference in keeping of captured officers and the lower ranks. The situation of the soldiers in captivity was very difficult; they were pressured to go into the Prussian service, they felt the need for clothing and warm rooms, some of the prisoners was forcibly sent to the Prussian army and, contrary to international agreements, remained there even after the end of the war.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):5-13
pages 5-13 views
NICELY AND HELPFUL (FROM THE HISTORY OF THE KUMISS THERAPY IN THE SAMARA PROVINCE)
Zubona О.V.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the history of the emergence of kumiss production and the organization of a network of kumiss medical institutions in the Samara province with middle XIX century in the first decades of the XX century.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):14-25
pages 14-25 views
EXPERIENCE OF THE DEPUTIES OF THE SECOND STATE DUMA IN THE COMMISSIONS ON COMBATING HUNGER AND UNEMPLOYMENT (FEBRUARY-JUNE 1907)
Bannikova N.F., Minyashev V.S.
Abstract
The authors show the complexity of the work of the deputies of the Second State Duma (February-June 1907) on the acute issues of combating hunger and unemployment. In the conditions of the unfinished term of the Duma, since it was dissolved, the deputies tried to expand the work of the commissions for the social protection of the disadvantaged strata of the population. The authors note that the priority of the legislative branch in the draft work of the commissions was more clearly manifested by the socialist factions than by the liberal ones. Representatives of the left-wing factions tried to involve the city Dumas and public organizations in work on important issues, but the center-right and the government posed all sorts of obstacles to them. However, even in such difficult conditions, the deputies used every opportunity to strengthen the positions of the people’s representation on the way to deepening democratic reforms in the country.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):26-31
pages 26-31 views
ELABORATION OF CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS FOR THE EDUCATION OF OFFICERS IN THE SPIRIT OF LOVE FOR THE MOTHERLAND BY MILITARY-POLITICAL LEADERS OF THE WHITE MOVEMENT
Zajkina T.V.
Abstract
The author uses the methods of historical study to consider the specifics of the approach of the White movement leaders to educating their officers in the spirit of love for the Motherland during the civil war in Russia in the beginning of the XX century. On the base of the analysis of historical sources, the author traces the continuity of the ideological base of the White movement from the military-patriotic education of tsarist Russia, but also distinguishes its subjective and objective features.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):32-37
pages 32-37 views
HISTORY OF THE KUIBYSHEV CONFECTIONERY FACTORY (BASED ON THE MATERIALS FROM THE FUND COLLECTIONS OF THE SAMARA REGIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND LOCAL LORE NAMED AFTER P.V. ALABIN)
Еliseeva Е.А.
Abstract
The article is devoted to studying the history of the Kuibyshev confectionery factory through the prism of the fund collections of the Samara regional museum of history and local lore named after P.V. Alabin. Photographs, diaries of work crews and packaging products of the enterprise were used as historical sources. This source series was collected in the funds of the Kuibyshev Museum of Local History thanks to the collective activities of employees in 1966.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):38-44
pages 38-44 views
JULIUS LUPUS: TRIBUNE OR CENTURION?
Guskov E.A.
Abstract
The assassination of Emperor Gaius (Caligula) in January 41 was the prologue to events unprecedented in the history of the Principate. For two days, Rome, seized with the idea of restoring the republic, was under the control of the consuls, the Senate, and the officers of the Praetorian Guard. By the decision of Cassius Chaerea, who was the head of the conspirators, the members of the emperor’s family - his widow Caesonia and their daughter - were also killed. The executor of this order was one of the Praetorian officers, Julius Lupus, whom Josephus calls a tribune, but Suetonius calls him a centurion. This article is devoted to this contradiction and its causes.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):45-57
pages 45-57 views
EXPERIENCE OF TEACHING THE COURSE «THE HISTORY OF MONEY CIRCULATION» AT THE UNIVERSITY
Zapariy V.V.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the experience of reading a course on the history of money circulation, the teaching practice of which has been tested in a number of higher educational institutions of the Sverdlovsk region. It contains an attempt to analyze the content of this course and its impact on the studying of economic history, numismatics, bonistics, and even collecting by students. The author considers the teaching of such a course necessary for students of a number of specialties for educational purposes. He emphasizes the general culturological effect for the audience, the formation of spiritual and moral values, and even the influence on the preservation of artifacts for the future.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):58-62
pages 58-62 views
SOVIET-GERMAN COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF HYDRO-TURBINE ENGINEERING IN THE 1920s
Ganin M.A.
Abstract
In December 1920, the GOELRO plan was adopted: a long-term plan for the electrification of the country, which was supposed to form the necessary prerequisites for the industrial development of the young Soviet state. The development of hydropower played an important role in this, however, without the necessary technologies and experience in building large hydro turbines, the Soviet state would have been forced to acquire them abroad, and thus inevitably fell into dependence on the advanced Western countries. In this regard, it was decided to develop Soviet own hydro-turbine-building enterprises (one of the key ones among which was the Leningrad Metal Plant), attracting foreign assistance whenever it was possible. Cooperation was started with the German company «Fritz Neumeyer», which was ready not only to supply finished products, but also to carry out technical cooperation. This article contains an attempt to consider the prerequisites for cooperation of the Leningrad Metal Plant with the company «Fritz Neumeyer», to determine the key areas of the transfer of technologies of hydro-turbine engineering between Leningrad Metal Plant and the «Fritz Neumeyer» at various stages, and to assess the impact of this cooperation on the establishment and development of national hydro-turbine development.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):63-71
pages 63-71 views
«PRIORITY IN THE CREATION OF AN ACTIVE ICEBREAKING AND HEAVY-DUTY TRANSPORT VESSEL SHALL BE RETAINED BY THE SOVIET UNION»
Isaenko M.G., Volkova A.V.
Abstract
The beginning of the 1950s was a period of active exploration of the Northern Sea Route, as well a time of aggravation of relations between world powers, which led to the development and strengthening of new economic and political positions of the Soviet Union. The authors of the article describe the prerequisites and the development of icebreaking shipbuilding in the USSR in the face of significant demand for new ships with a principled position to leave the accumulated experience inside the country. Particular attention is paid to an in-depth analysis of the established situation and the practice of developing a new icebreaking vessel at that time by outstanding Leningrad scientists from the Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route under the Council of Ministers of the USSR: A.I. Brandaus, V.F. Burkhanov, V.I. Neganov, N.A. Eremeev, A.S. Kolesnichenko, M.Y. Rogov and others. The paper also reflects the great interest of the central organizations of shipbuilding and management of the sea and river fleet in the rapid advancement of this project in the USSR.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):72-85
pages 72-85 views
PHENOMENON OF MAIDANSKAYA CULTURE OF MIDDLE VOLGA VERSION OF VOLOSOVO CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL COMMUNITY. PART 1
Nikitin V.V.
Abstract
The article contains the results of many years of research on the debating problems of the “Volosovо culture” raised by scientists since the 1950s. On the extensive materials of the Mari archaeological expedition, we propose the hypothesis of the cultural genesis of an unique kind of society in the territory of the Middle Volga region at the turn of the Stone Age and the beginning of the early metal age; it was the culture of porous ceramics. By the name of the cluster of the investigated sites (Maidanskoe) the culture is called Maidanskaya; it represents one of the variants of the Volovskaya cultural and historical community.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):86-99
pages 86-99 views
RESULTS OF EXCAVATIONS AT THE ALGAY SITE IN THE STEPPE VOLGA REGION IN 2020
Vybornov A.A., Gilyazov F.F., Doga N.S., Popov A.S., Yudin A.I., Vasilyeva I.N., Kulkova M.A., Roslyakova N.V., Kosintsev P.A.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of the Algay site study undertaken in 2020 in the steppe Volga region (Aleksandorovo-Gaisky district of the Saratov region) on the right bank of the Bolshoy Uzen river. During the excavations archaeologists discovered three cultural layers, separated from each other by sterile layers. The upper layer contains finds belonged to the Khvalynskaya Eneolithic culture, the middle layer contains finds from the Caspian one, and the lower layer - from the Orlovskaya culture. The ceramics are made of silty clay with an admixture of mollusk shells. The stone tools differ in raw materials: the Khvalynskaya and Caspian artifacts are made mainly of quartzite, and the Orlovskaya ones are made of flint. The range of objects is dominated by various types of scrapers, knives and cutting points. The flat-bottomed vessels of the Orlovskaya culture are ornamented using the technique of a receding lines with oval and triangular pricks. Patterns are represented by horizontal rows and zigzags. Aurochs, tarpan, saiga and onager were identified among the bones of animals. Bones of a domestic dog were found in the Orlovskaya culture layer, and bones of sheep and goats in the Caspian layer. The bone tools and a shell pendant were also found. The radiocarbon dates indicate the existence of the Caspian layer in the V millennium BC, and the Orlovskaya layer in the VII -VI millennium BC.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):100-121
pages 100-121 views
SETTLEMENT BARSOVA GORA II/42 (NEOLITHIC, ENEOLITHIC AND BRONZE AGE COMPLEXES)
Dubovtseva Е.N.
Abstract
The settlement Barsova Gora II/42 is located in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra, 15 km west of Surgut, on the high bank of the Ob’ River. The settlement is being actively destroyed due to the activities of oil companies. More than 20 objects and structures were investigated in 2011 during rescue excavations, some of them are pits of ancient dwellings (sites 1, 2, 6, 15, 19), some are household outbuildings and pits (sites 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20), two objects have a cult purpose (sites 5, 12). An important feature of the monument is that archaeological structures of different epochs and cultures overlap each other, allowing us to trace the sequence of settlement of this part of the Ob River bank. During the Neolithic Age the constructions of Bystrinsky and Barsovogorsky cultural types were located here, the cultural layers containing ceramics of Vakhovsky type belong to the Eneolithic Age, and the constructions and household pits of Kulugansky type belong to the Bronze Age. An ochre storage pit and a ring ochre structure represent a unique object, which is probably related to ancient rituals. The revealed objects (Nos. 15, 19, 18, 2, 1, 5, 17, 13) are partially investigated and require further excavations.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):122-136
pages 122-136 views
CERAMIC COMPLEX OF THE MALAYA SOPKA SANCTUARY OF THE BRONZE AGE ON THE LOWER DON
Yudin A.I.
Abstract
The paper contains an analysis of the ceramic collection of the bronze age sanctuary Malaya Sopka. The sanctuary is located in the Oktyabrsky district of the Rostov region and was investigated in 2017. A little more than 10,000 square meters of the cultural layer of the сentral part of the monument were studied, which is about two-thirds of the total area. On the entire territory of the excavation, there were no dwellings, buildings, household pits, and hearths. However, 10 religious complexes were studied on the site, in the form of a system of ditches of various configurations (ring, rectangular, double ring), 12 objects (stone slabs and layouts, ruins of vessels), which gave reason to call Malaya Sopka a place of worship or a sanctuary. The weakly saturated cultural layer contained tools and products made of stone, bone and bronze. The main part of the finds is represented by ruins and fragments of bronze age ceramics and fragments of cattle bones. The ceramic complex of the site was formed at the turn of the middle and late Bronze age at the base of two different cultural traditions: the local Babino (multi-ribbed) and the newcomer Don-Volga Abashevo culture. The syncretic ceramic complex marks the stage of formation of the early Srubnaya (Timber-grave) culture and supplements the data on the cultural genesis of the middle-late Bronze age with the materials of the cult site.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):137-166
pages 137-166 views
PROFESSOR SERGEY PAVLOVICH RASPOPIN: SCIENTIST AND TEACHER
Ryzhov A.A., Zaparij V.V.
Abstract
The article is dedicated to the upcoming centenary of the birth of an outstanding Russian scientist, one of the founders of the direction of training specialists in the field of physical and technical education in the Urals, Professor Sergei Pavlovich Raspopin. He belonged to the generation that went through the Great Patriotic War. He was one of the first graduates of the Faculty of Physics and Technology of the Ural Polytechnic Institute and worked there all his life as the head of one of the leading departments, and then as a professor. The authors describe his scientific and pedagogical activities, characterize the importance of his scientific achievements for the development of science in our country, reveal the peculiarities of the formation of his scientific school.
Izvestiya of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences History Sciences. 2021;3(2):167-174
pages 167-174 views
pages 175-177 views

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