THE ROLE OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE FORMATION OF NEUROENDOCRINE AND IMMUNE DISORDERS DURING STRESS AND DISSTRESSE

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Abstract


The aim of the research was studying the features of neurohumoral regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in experimental diabetes mellitus. A model of diabetes mellitus was created by introducing 0.1% solution of epinephrine hydrochloride into animals. Biochemical parameters of carbohydrate metabolism (cortisol, C-peptide and glucose) were studied in 17 animals on day 0, 15, 21, 30, 45. On the same day morphofunctional changes formed in the pancreas and Nodi lymphatici pancreaticoduodenales were studied. With stress, there is an increase in cortisol and C-peptide and a decrease in the concentration of glucose in the blood. In distress cortisol secretion is reduced, and the production of C-peptide and glucose concentration in the blood increases. In the lymph nodes formed functional changes that led to a violation of cellular and humoral immunity in the body. Conclusion. The cause of diabetes is a failure in the work of self-regulating mechanisms of carbohydrate metabolism, which leads to dysregulation pathology of the autonomic nervous system, manifested by antagonism between adrenaline and cortisol, insulin and cortisol.

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Introduction. The hypothalamus, being the center of the autonomic nervous system, simultaneously functions as an endocrine organ, secreting neurohormones. At the same time, the vegetative system reacts to incoming stimuli instantly, and the endocrine system - after a while [1]. The mechanisms regulating hormonal activity in the periphery are based on the principle of negative feedback. Insulin secretion by beta cells provides the paraventricular-vagal pathway, the activity of which depends on the amount of cortisol circulating in the blood. With insufficient secretion of cortisol by the adrenal glands, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus increases the secretion of corticoliberin, which stimulates the secretion of adrenocorticotrophin, and the secretion of cortisol in the adrenal glands increases. Simultaneously, corticoliberin activates n through synaptic contacts. dorsalis vagus and n. The vagus reaches the pancreatic islets, increasing insulin secretion. With an excessive amount of cortisol circulating in the blood, the secretion of corticoliberin is reduced, which leads to inhibition of the functional activity of the paraventricular-vagal pathway, reducing the secretion of insulin, adrenocorticotrophin and cortisol by the adrenal glands [2, 3]. Causes of human diabetes include acute or chronic stress, perinatal encephalopathy, physical injuries, autoimmune and vascular disorders, obesity, bacterial and viral infections, hereditary predisposition [4]. The lymphatic system, which performs drainage, detoxification, transport, integration and immune functions, provides a special functional load for preserving homeostasis in the body, providing rehabilitation of tissue and intercellular fluids and maintaining water homeostasis [5]. The purpose of the study is studying the features of the neurohumoral regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in experimental diabetes mellitus. Material and methods. A model of diabetes mellitus was created by introducing a 0.1% solution of epinephrine hydrochloride into animals [6]. Biochemical parameters of carbohydrate metabolism (cortisol, C-peptide and glucose) were studied. Blood sampling for biochemical studies was carried out in 17 animals at 0, 15, 21, 30, 45 days. On the same day, animals under intravenous anesthesia were sampled for histological examination of the pancreas and nodi lymphatici pancreaticoduodenales. For this purpose, for each period of the experiment, an additional 4 rabbits were involved, in which the adrenaline load was carried out according to the same scheme as the 17 rabbits main group. The material for morphological studies on animals was collected according to the European Convention, 1986 [7]. Results and discussion. During the first 15 days the filling of experimental animals with epinephrine was manifested by an increase in the functional activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The levels of cortisol and c-peptide in the blood increased by 21.1% and 12.5%, respectively. Glucose concentration decreased by 25.5%. On the 21st day cortisol levels fell to 56.4%. The concentration of c-peptide was equal to that of healthy animals (0.60 ± 0.014 ng/ml) and the blood glucose index increased by 52.1%. By the 30th day cortisol level decreased by 57.5%, which led to an increase in c-peptide indices by 15.6%, glucose by 209.9%. By the 45th day, the amount of cortisol decreased by 71.03%, and the values of c-peptide increased by 20.3% and glucose by 253.4%. The activity of the parasympathetic system prevailed over the sympathetic innervation. On the 30th and 45th day of the experiment, the bulk density of the islets of Langerhans and the numerical density of the endocrine cells in them increased. Nodi lymphatici pancreaticoduodenales has acquired a fragmented functional type. The transport function for the diversion of toxic lymph from the pancreas increased, which was combined with a decrease in the thymus-dependent and paracortical zones. This indicates a violation of cellular and humoral immunity in the body. Conclusion. Under stress, there is an increase in cortisol and c-peptide while reducing the concentration of glucose in the blood. With distress, antagonism appears between adrenaline and cortisol, insulin and cortisol. The cause of diabetes mellitus is a malfunction of the self-regulating mechanisms of carbohydrate metabolism. During distress, increased insulin secretion is most likely necessary for energy replenishment. During this period, the failure of the self-regulating mechanisms of carbohydrate metabolism may occur. Autoimmune disorders recorded in patients are associated with functional restructuring of the lymph nodes, as a result of which cellular and humoral immunity is impaired in the body. Financial support for research work was provided by grants from the Ministry of Science and Education of Kyrgyzstan in 2013-2015 and from sponsors Shereshkov O., Chudinov I., Rudovoy M., for which the authors express sincere gratitude.

About the authors

Y M Pesin

Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Bishkek


V K Gabitov

Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Bishkek


A A Beisembaev

Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Bishkek


Ya I Potekhina

Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Bishkek


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