Respiratory viral infections including caused by coronaviruses in oncological and oncohematological patients

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are prone to developing infectious complications. They significantly aggravate the course of the underlying disease and worsen the quality of life of patients. The emergence of infections is largely promoted by immunosuppression associated with the use of cytostatic drugs, high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in hematological cancer patients. Among infectious agents, respiratory viruses, especially influenza viruses, play an important role. The urgency of this problem has increased many times in connection with the development of the COVID-19 pandemic.

AIM: To study the features of the course of respiratory infections, including coronavirus (seasonal and COVID-19), infections in cancer and oncohematological patients during hospitalization and in outpatient settings.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study of the frequency and course of infectious complications in cohorts of patients with oncological diseases, who were under dispensary supervision in the polyclinic in Kirovsk, Leningrad region. Retrospective analysis of the frequency and characteristics of the course of coronavirus infection caused by HCoVs (OC43, 229E, NL63, HKU1) in patients treated at the clinics of the Russian research institute of Hematology and Transfusionology. Prospective study of the coronavirus COVID-19 of patients hospitalized at the Russian research institute of Hematology and Transfusionology and at the Kirov interdistrict hospital in Leningrad Region during the period of its conversion to specialized infection diseases hospital.

RESULTS: Coronavirus infection caused by HCoVs (OC43, 229E, NL63, HKU1), occurs in hematological cancer patients more often in association with other respiratory viruses. In the cases of detection of the SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized patients, they need to be transferred to specialized infectious hospitals.

CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory viral infections are risk factors in cancer and oncohematological patients. Outpatient oncological and oncohematological patients require constant dispensary observation and special attention during the COVID-19 pandemic, outbreaks of influenza and other viral infections.

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About the authors

Alena V. Kuleshova

Russian Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency

Author for correspondence.
Email: alenabs@yandex.ru

Head of the Bacteriological Laboratory, doctor-bacteriologist

Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg

Inna P. Iskova

Kirov Clinical Interdistrict Hospital

Email: alenabs@yandex.ru

oncologist

Russian Federation, Leningrad Region, Kirovsk

Ekaterina E. Kiseleva

Russian Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency

Email: alenabs@yandex.ru

PhD (Biol.), Senior Researcher the Bacteriological Laboratory

Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg

Vitaliy N. Chebotkevich

Russian Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency

Email: alenabs@yandex.ru

Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor, Head of the Department of the Bacteriology

Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg

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Copyright (c) 2021 Kuleshova A.V., Iskova I.P., Kiseleva E.E., Chebotkevich V.N.

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