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Cytokines - family of polypeptide molecules, that are produced by tissue cells and regulate embryogenesis, some normal physiological functions, defense reactions to pathogens, and several pathological processes including immunopathology, carcinogenesis, heart and vascular pathology, etc. Different experiments led to conclusion that in case of hyperproduction cytokines instead of defense factors can become the mediators of pathology. During infections elevated cytokine synthesis followed with tissue inflammation depends on the pathogen associated molecular patterns binding to the pattern recognition innate immunity receptors. In non-infectious diseases like autoimmune, allergic, and other immunopathologic conditions cytokines also induce tissue inflammatory changes. In autoinflammatory diseases including metabolic syndrome elevated cytokine synthesis is due to endogenous danger molecules binding to pattern recognition receptors. In both cases cytokines can induce tissue and organ changes with the following development of the human disease clinical symptoms. Scientific studies in this field led to the so called cytokine theory of diseases, according to which cytokines are the main reason for pathology development. Due to this theory there are two principal variants of cytokine usage in clinical practice: cytokine therapy when recombinant cytokines are used to cure cytokine deficiency or their changed balance; and anticytokine therapy for inhibition of hyper produced endogenous cytokines.

A S Simbirtsev

State Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations of the Federal Medico-Biological Agency

Email: simbirtsev@hpb-spb.com

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