Vol 3, No 2 (2021)

From the editor

From the editor

Perelygin V.V.

Abstract

Scientific and Practical Conference “Environmental Protection. Environmental Risk Assessment for Radiopharmaceutical Waste Management” was held on June 02 at Saint Petersburg State Chemical and Pharmaceutical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation hosting in-person event for the first time in nearly a year.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):2-3
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Pharmaceutical Sciences

Battery of tests for studying the adaptogenic effects of biologically active substances in preclinical trials

Shustov E.B., Okovityi S.V., Bolotova V.T., Kim A.E.

Abstract

Based on the materials of the article, the authors offer researchers of the problems of adaptation and the study of specific adaptogenic activity standardized approaches to biomedical (preclinical) research of new biologically active substances, ensuring their comparability. The analysis of modern views on adaptation processes, as an increase in nonspecific resistance to adaptive effects, and the properties of known adaptogens is carried out. It has been shown that adaptogenic action can be realized through the involvement of several regulatory pathways, such as changes in the activity of neurons and endocrine response in response to adverse effects, interaction with cell receptors and modulation of their sensitivity to endogenous regulators, changes in the composition of cell membranes, structure of the cytoskeleton, activities of enzyme complexes, epigenomic regulation, antioxidant and antiradical activity. A grouping of methods for the experimental study of adaptogens is proposed on the basis of their compliance with the definition of this pharmacological class and the requirements of evidence-based medicine. The groups of methods aimed at increasing the rate and stability of the formation of a state of increased resistance to adverse influences, reparative-restorative processes, nonspecific resistance, psychoactivating and neuroplastic effects, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects were identified. Specific schemes of adaptive influences and criteria for assessing adaptogenic activity are proposed on the basis of comparing the results obtained with the effects of «reference» adaptogens. The technology of the integrated assessment of the results of the methods, which are different in their informational significance, has been substantiated.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):10-25
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Regulatory framework and prospects for the implementation of the Electronic Prescription System in the Russian Federation

Zolotareva N.G., Pokhvalenko E.V.

Abstract

The article presents the results of a study of legal regulation of medicines in accordance with the statement on January 1, 2019 of the Federal Project “Creation of the Unified Digital Circuit of Health Care on the basis of the Unified State Health Information System”. The project involves pharmacy organizations, which are going to issuance prescription drugs in the form of an electronic document. The development of the Unified State Health Information System will require a lot of organizational and methodological work both on the part of the regional health authorities and pharmacy organizations.

An analysis of the activities of pharmacy organizations in Saint Petersburg and the Northwestern Federal District that issuance prescription drugs made it possible to assess the level of preparedness to work in the new conditions. The developed measures necessary for pharmacies to work in the Electronic Prescription System cover infrastructural, functional and educational aspects and can be used as an appropriate action plan.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):26-35
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Foreign experience in veterinaryapplication of scintigraphy

Lunegova I.V., Tyts V.V., Lunegov A.M.

Abstract

Foreign experience in the use of radiopharmaceuticals has provedthe diagnostic accuracy in identifying kidney, heart, lungs, soft tissues and blood vessels disease. Scintigraphy could beused to detect morphofunctional changes inorgans ororgan systems, as well as metabolic disorders by means of radiation dose rate received afterthe radiopharmaceutical administration. For example, Technetium-99 (99m Tc) is appliedto identifyincomplete bone fractures in unproductive animals and sports horses; hypothyroidism and malignant neoplasms affecting the thyroid gland in dogs; hyperthyroidism in cats. To date, scintigraphy is rarely used in domestic veterinary practice due to a number of reasons. High cost of radionuclides; the need to comply with safety requirements, in accordance with the Guideline 2.6.1.1892-04 dated March 04, 2004; the lack of additional veterinary specialist training. The most significant point is that animals injected with a radioactive compound or implanted with radioactive sources can be returnedto the owner only after the activity of radionuclides in the body (GBq) reducedenough to meet the requirements of Sanitary Regulations and Norms2.6.2523-09 “Radiation Safety Standards (NRB-99/2009)” dated July 07, 2009.

It should be noted that radiopharmaceutical drugs have not been approved for use in productive animals in the USA to date. As additional financial and human resources are required to control the number of residual nuclides in livestock products, resulting in production costs increase.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):36-39
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Biomedical Sciences

State of the Russian Oncology Service: malignant neoplasms of the tongue C01, 02 (age-specific incidence rate, localization and histological structure) Part 1

Merabishvili V.M., Merabishvili E.N., Shcherbakov A.M., Vasilyev A.B., Barsukov A.F., Krotov N.F.

Abstract

Malignant tongue neoplasms (C01, 02) belong to the group of rare visual tumor localizations. Government statistics provides an opportunity to refer only to primary accounting data. Information on mortality is summarized in 14 ICD-10 (S00-14) headings – malignant neoplasm of the lip, oral cavity and pharynx. It is impossible to obtain any analytical characteristics (the distribution of patients by stages of the disease, mortality of patients in the first year of observation, accumulated patient population, etc.) at the all-Russian or regional level. This information can only be obtained from the databases created by the Population-based Cancer Registries (PCR).

The goal of the research is to study the prevalence of malignant neoplasms of the tongue, the detailed structure of the incidence, and to calculate a number of analytical indicators characterizing this disease at the population level of the Federal District, for the first time in Russia.

Based on the materials of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), statistical reference books of the P. Hertsen Moscow Oncological Research Institute, our own extensive materials and the newly created PCR database at the level of the Northwestern Federal District of Russia , the study of all possible aspects was carried out within the framework of the set goal of the research, with a set of methodological techniques recommended by the International Association of Cancer Registries (of which we are a member at number 221) being used.

The study has shown that tongue cancer morbidity rate of the population (standardized indicator – the world standard) in the various countries from 1970 to 2010 has slightly increased or maintained its level. In Russia, such an assessment can only be carried out from 1989 to 2018. During this period, the incidence of tongue cancer among males increased from 2.2 to 2.43 0/0000, among females from 0.4 to 0.71 0/0000. In the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation, the incidence of males reached 2.69, females – 0.82 0/0000. The mortality rate of patients in the first year of observation (PCR database) decreased from m 59.5 (the year of 2000) to 43.1% (2018), but remains significantly above the EU average.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):40-47
pages 40-47 views

State of the Russian Oncology Service: malignant neoplasms of the tongue C01, 02 (mortality rate and median survival of patients, taking into account the stage of the disease and histological structure of the tumor) Part 2

Merabishvili V.M., Merabishvili E.N., Scherbakov A.M., Vasilyev A.B., Krotov N.F., Barsukov A.F.

Abstract

Malignant neoplasms of the tongue occupy 0.55% in the general structure of the cancer incidence in the Russian population. No information on other parameters (the number of deaths, mortality of patients, their distribution by stages of the disease and other analytical indicators) is provided in the official reporting.

The opportunity appeared only with the development of Population-based Cancer Registries (PCR) system, but this wealth of material is not used for the official reporting.

Tongue cancer is a visual localization with a high mortality rate, which requires special attention.

The research was conducted in order to investigate the state of the Russian Oncology Service for tongue cancer patients with the calculations of one-year mortality rate, annual mortality rate, median survival, 1,3,5-year observed and relative survival rates. The research was undertaken at the level of the newly created Population-based Cancer Registry of the Federal District for the first time in Russia.

The studies on the analysis of cancer survival rate at the population level are practically not carried out in Russia. Such investigations for all malignant tumor localizations have been conducted since 2000 on the basis of Saint Petersburg PCR database. The level of 5-year observed and relative survival rates of tongue cancer patients in Russia (Saint Petersburg and the NWFD RF) has been determined significantly lower than the EU average (Eurocare-4). To carry out this study, 5188 observations from the NWFD RF PCR database were selected. It has been established that during four periods of observation, the one-year mortality rate of tongue cancer patients in the NWFD RF has decreased under the C01 heading (malignant neoplasm of base of tongue) from 58.5 to 45.8%; and under the C02 heading (malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue) – from 54.5 to 42.7%. The five-year survival rate of tongue cancer patients has increased by 23.3%.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):48-59
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Effect of organophosphorus compounds on the external respiratory functionin rats during intratracheal andintraperitonealadministration

Kryazhevskikh A.A., Kryazhevskikh A.A., Subbotina S.N., Sklyarova N.A.

Abstract

Due to the increasing influence of chemical factors on the human body, the experiment has been conducted using organophosphorus compounds (OPC) to stimulate poisoning cases in the production facilities. Given that the development of respiratory failureis a specific organophosphate poisoningsymptom, a comparative analysis of external respiratory function (ERF)in rats with intratracheal and intraperitoneal administration of diisopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP) has been carried out. During the research, the average lethal doses of the toxic chemicals have been established, the conditions of DFP intoxication have been modeled.Thus, LD16 was 0.284 mg/kg by intratracheal administration, 1.6 mg/kg – byintraperitoneal administration. Experimental data have shown that the intratracheal intake of OPC causes the development of respiratory failure in the first minutes after poisoning.The return of the ERF indicators to the background values was noted a day after poisoning. With the intraperitoneal administration of the toxic chemical, the rate of development of ERF disorders was lower, toxic effects persisted for two days. The data obtained can be used to make appropriate recommendations for the prevention of accidents and non-emergency cases in a production facility.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):60-65
pages 60-65 views

Biological sciences

Steroid hormones and their metabolites in water of centralized drinking water supply systems as ecopolutants

Vengerovich N.G., Perelygin V.V.

Abstract

Information about the presence of drugs and their metabolites in the water of centralized drinking water supply systems is presented; the main groups of drugs found in purified drinking water of large cities are given. The main groups of drugs found in a centralized drinking water supply system include antidepressants (amitriptyllin), antibacterial drugs of various groups (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, azithromycin), narcotic analgesics (cocaine, morphine, their derivatives), psychoactive stimulants, benzodiazepines, hormones (estrogen and its metabolites estrone and estriol).

A high level of potential risk to public health is marked due to the presence of steroid hormones and their active metabolites in drinking water. The concept of endocrine dysregulating complexes is formulated. Such complexes can be of a different nature of origin, but all of them affect receptors for estrogen and progesterone. It leads to abnormalities of hormonal regulation, affects endogenous synthesis, transport and secretory function.

From the standpoint of ecotoxicology, further ways of working out the problem of the presence of steroid hormones in drinking water are proposed: the development of theoretical approaches to substantiating hygienic standards concerning the monitoring of these compounds in the water of centralized drinking water supply systems.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):66-71
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Personal protective equipment waste potentially infected with SARS-CoV-2 – a new global challenge for biological safety

Donchenko V.K., Sakharov V.A., Sakharova O.A.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a study and analysis of the problematic situation when handling potentially infectious public waste during the spread of the new coronavirus infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

The population around the world is forced to comply with special prevention rules recommended by supervisory medical and executive authorities. These include the use of personal protective equipment by citizens.

To date, sanitary legislation, as well as municipal solid waste management standards and regulations, does not include a fraction of medical waste containing potentially hazardous substances – personal protective equipment waste generated beyond healthcare facilities.

The situation under study, in our opinion, determines the particular relevance of the setting and solving of the problem of scientific substantiation of the functional model of an integrated method for ensuring biological safety of the population. To develop a separate stream of potentially infectious public waste in the system of municipal solid waste handling in cities and settlements.

The article analyzes and proposes new approaches to solving a number of tasks for the management of potentially infectious public waste generated beyond healthcare facilities.

We invite stakeholders to jointly research and discuss all aspects of the management of medical and biological waste, as well as municipal solid waste, taking into account the continued spread of the new coronavirus infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, to develop proposals for improving sanitary and environmental legislation.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):72-77
pages 72-77 views

Information and Prevention

Some aspects of pesticide contamination of medicinal plants

Paramonov S.G.

Abstract

Chemical agents (pesticides)are used extensively by modern intensive agriculture to protect agricultural plants from environmental hazards. Pesticide use serves sanitary and hygienic purposes – to prevent dangerous disease transmission by infected blood-feeding athropods and to remove unwanted vegetation at production facilities. At the same time, the very use of pesticides might have a negative impact on the human body when residual doses get into cultivated and wild medicinal plant raw materials.

The article deals with the problem of microcontamination of medicinal plants with pesticides. In particular, distribution routes for pesticides have been specified. Monitoring pesticide pollution problems both of the areas of medicinal plants collection and the raw materials have been raised. The monitoring problem complicated by pesticide storage in the environment has been noted.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):78-81
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Pharmaceutical learning activit

Socio-biological factors of increased morbidity risk in participants of educational process in higher education institutions related to the global epidemiological situation in 2020-2021

Perelygin V.V., Paramonov S.G., Sklyarova N.A., Zharikov M.V., Sklyarova L.V.

Abstract

One of the numerous negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic is the «second epidemic» of negative psychological effects. Population stress in modern conditions can serve as a catalyst for mental disorders of teachers and students. In the present situation, restrictive and special measures should be considered as additional harmful socio-biological factors for participants of the university educational process.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):82-85
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Actual problems: discussion tribune

Tumor growth – a modern view of pathogenesis and pharmacotherapy (lecture)

Tyukavin A.I., Suchkov S.V.

Abstract

The lecture presents up-to-date information on the prevalence of cancer in the world and in the Russian Federation. The main risk factors and causes of malignant tumors are considered. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of transformation of normal cells into tumor cells, and the role of oncogenes and anti-oncogenes in the initiation of malignant growth is shown. Based on modern information about carcinogenesis, the pathogenetic significance of the molecular mechanisms of malignant cell growth at various stages (initiation, promotion, progression) of the tumor process is shown. The mechanisms of evasion of tumors from the influence of immune and other mechanisms that restrain their emergence and development in the body are described, and it is also shown how the spread (metastasis) of malignant cells occurs. The modern tumor markers are presented, on the basis of which the earlier detection of malignant diseases is performed. Particular attention is paid to molecular diagnostic approaches to assessing the risk of occurrence and early diagnosis of malignant neoplasms. Genomic, epigenetic and interactomic tumor markers, which are used in leading domestic and foreign oncological centers, are considered. The most promising approaches to the creation of effective anticancer drugs obtained on the basis of the achievements of molecular biology and bioinformatics are highlighted.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):86-96
pages 86-96 views

Announcement

CORRIGENDUM TO: [Pharmacy Formulas. - 2021. - Vol. 3. - N. 1. - P. 66-75. doi: 10.17816/phf60598]

Peshekhonova L.K., Peshekhonov D.V., Pyatibrat A.O., Vengerovich N.G.

Abstract

Correction in “Peshekhonova L.K., Peshekhonov D.V., Pyatibrat A.O., Vengerovich N.Г. Comparison of the effectiveness of supplementary prescribing the chonodoprotector Mucosat in the oral and parenteral dosage forms during the acute exacerbation of osteoarthritis // Pharmacy Formulas. – 2021. – Vol. 3. – N. 1. – P. 66–75. doi: https://doi.org/10.17816/phf60598”.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):99-99
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Heritage

Director Nikolai Vasilyevich Koshkin: the Institute has become Chemical and Pharmaceutical again

Narkevich I.A., Stepanov S.V., Volgusheva A.O., Zvyagin Y.Y., Vorobeva S.A., Perelygin V.V.

Abstract

By the end of the 1940s, it was necessary to intensify the engineering personnel training and development in the medical industry. Pharmaceutical institutes were chosen by the Soviet Healthcare Authorities to hold training sessions. For this purpose, the Leningrad Pharmaceutical Institute was transferred from the Ministry of Health of the RSFSR to the Main Medical Directorate of the Ministry of Health of the USSR to be further specialized in the training of chemical engineering technologists, chemical engineers for chemical and pharmaceutical plants and microbiological engineers for antibiotic production plants. At the same time, the historical name “Chemistry and Pharmacy” was returned to the institute.

The paper reconstructs the biography of Nikolay V. Koshkin, a chemist, the Director of the Leningrad Institute of Pharmacy (Chemistry and Pharmacy) from 1947 to 1952 (now Saint Petersburg State Chemical and Pharmaceutical University, SPCPU) based on unpublished materials from Saint Petersburg archives. N. Koshkin, a graduate of the Leningrad State University and a student of Academician V.E. Tishchenko, made a notable contribution to the establishment of chemical engineering technologists program in the pharmaceutical institute. He also returned the priority of chemical disciplines in the pharmaceutical training, both for pharmacy and chemical-pharmaceutical production. N. Koshkin initiated the training of microbiological engineers. During his administration, there was an attempt to establish a publishing house at the institute. Many textbooks were published, later on used by generations of students.

Pharmacy Formulas. 2021;3(2):100-107
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