Comparative analysis of risk factors for hip fracture in patients of different nationalities living in Kazakhstan

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BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial systemic skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone strength leading to an increased risk of fractures. Hip fracture is a serious complication of osteoporosis. It is expected in Kazakhstan by 2050 the annual number of hip fracture will increase by 140% compared to 2015 data and will amount to 28,048 cases. There are differences in the incidence of fractures and low bone mineral density in different ethnic groups. However, low bone mineral density is only one of many risk factors for osteoporotic fractures.

AIM: To study the risk factors of osteoporosis and related osteoporotic fractures in patients with hip fracture living in Kazakhstan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control study included 98 patients with hip fracture of Kazakh (main group, n = 49) and other nationalities (control group, n = 49). In the registration card, risk factors for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures from the Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX) model were distinguished, and the Find cases Assess Confirm Severity algorithm (2019) was used to diagnose sarcopenia. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistics 26 (IBM SPSS, США).

RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of gender, disability, fracture location and functional activity, surgical treatment. An increase in cases of hip fracture at an older age was found in the main group than in the control group (р = 0.035).

There were no differences in the groups for clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fractures (body weight, height, history of fractures, family history of fractures, medication, comorbidity), except for smoking (lower in Kazakhs than in the other group) (р = 0.033). Differences in 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture between groups (р = 0.34 and р = 0.74) were not found. The proportion of patients who entered the intervention threshold and at low risk did not differ in the groups (р = 0.623).

The average SARC-F (Strength, Assistance with walking, Rise from a chair, Climb stairs and Falls) score was lower among Kazakhs (р = 0.011), there is a difference between the groups when walking (р = 0.044), climbing stairs (р = 0.003). A decrease of grip strength was noted in the main group (р = 0.008), especially in men (р = 0.011), but low grip strength (р < 0.001) and signs of sarcopenia (р < 0.001) were determined only by age, not nationality.

CONCLUSIONS: The Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX) model and intervention threshold can be applied to all residents of Kazakhstan.

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About the authors

Samal M. Issayeva

Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0020-8464
Scopus Author ID: 57215617100
ResearcherId: AAK-5510-2020
Kazakhstan, Almaty

Olga M. Lesnyak

North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0143-0614
SPIN-code: 6432-4188
Scopus Author ID: 56769681100
ResearcherId: J-5512-2013

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg

Bakytsholpan G. Issayeva

Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4630-3985
Scopus Author ID: 57217075862

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Kazakhstan, Almaty

Dina S. Dilmanova

Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University


MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.), Assistant Professor

Kazakhstan, Almaty

Meruyert A. Bissembay

Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3563-4823
Kazakhstan, Almaty

Gaukhar A. Burakhanova

Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6968-5074
Kazakhstan, Almaty


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Copyright (c) 2022 Issayeva S.M., Lesnyak O.M., Issayeva B.G., Dilmanova D.S., Bissembay M.A., Burakhanova G.A.

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