Genetic mechanisms encoding biological complexity

Open Access Open Access
Restricted Access Access granted
Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Abstract


Increase in organism complexity is a global trend in evolution. Qualitatively extended complexity in eukaryotes in comparison to prokaryotes is provided by genome organization and genetic program realization. Genetic mechanisms of encoding biological complexity in pro- and eukaryotes are considered: above-triplet codes, combinatorial analysis of genetical blocks and gene network blocks, and their hierarchical interaction

About the authors

Valentin V Suslov

Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast, RF

Konstantin V Gunbin

Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast, RF

Nikolay A Kolchanov

Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast, RF

Email: kol@bionet.nsc.ru

References

  1. Ананько Е.А., Игнатьева Е.В., Недосекина Е.А. и др. Классификация генных сетей на основе информации базы данных GcncNct//Конференция, посвященная 90-летию со дня рождения А. А. Ляпунова:Тез. докл. -Новосибирск, Академгородок, 2001. http://www.ict.nsc.ru/ws/Lyap2001/2528/
  2. Бердников В.А., Родин С.Н., Жарких А.А. Эволюция величины генома на основе неравного кроссинговера//Докл. АН СССР. -1982. -Т. 263, № 2. -С. 464-467.
  3. Галимов Э.М. Феномен жизни. -М.: Изд-во УРСС, 2001.
  4. Заварзин Г.А. Проблемы доантропогенной эволюции биосферы//Развитие микробных сообществ в истории Земли. -М.: Наука. -1993.-С. 212-222.
  5. Заварзин Г.А. Экосистемныс перестройки и эволюция биосферы//Реликтовые прокариотные сообщества гипергалинных водоемов морского происхождения. -Вып. 1. -М.: Недра,-1994.-С. 318-325.
  6. Захаров И.К., Иванников А.В., Юрченко Н.Н. Динамика мутационного процесса и генофонд природных популяций Drosophila melanogaster II Современные концепции эволюционной генетики/Ред.: В.К. Шумный, А.Л. Марксль. -Новосибирск: ИЦиГ СО РАН. -2000. -С. 151-159.
  7. Колмогоров А.Н. Избранные труды. Математика и механика. -М.: Наука, 1985.
  8. Колчанов Н.А., Ананько Е.А., Колпаков ФА. и др. Генные сети//Мол. биология. -2000. -Т. 34, № 4. -С. 617-629.
  9. Колчанов Н.А., Суслов В.В., Шумный В. К. Молекулярная эволюция генетических систем//Палеонтологический журнал. -2003. -Т. 37, № 6. -С. 617-629.
  10. Короткова Г.П. Происхождение и эволюция онтогенеза. -Л.: Издательство ЛГУ, 1979.
  11. Корочкин Л.М. Введение в генетику развития. -М.: Наука, 1999.
  12. Лихошвай В.А., Матушкин Ю.Г., Фадеев С.М. О связи графагенной сети с качественными режимами ее функционирования//Мол. биология. -2001. -Т. 35, № 6. -С. 1080-1087.
  13. Пармон В.Н. Физико-химические движущие силы и направление естественного отбора и эволюции прсбиотических автокаталитических систем//Журн. физ. химии. -2002. -Т. 76, № 1. -С. 149-158.
  14. Прозоров А.А. Альтруизм в мире бактерий?//Усп. совр. биол. -2002. -Т. 122, № 5. -С. 403^13.
  15. Ратнер В.А. Генетика. Молекулярная кибернетика. Личности и проблемы. -Новосибирск: Наука, 2002. -С. 104-121.
  16. Ратнер В.А. Жарких А.А., Колчанов Н.А. и др. Проблемы теории молекулярной эволюции. -Новосибирск: Наука, 1985.
  17. Соловьев В.В., Колчанов Н.А. Экзонинтронная структура генов эукариот может быть обусловлена нуклеосомной организацией хроматина и связанными с ней особенностями регуляции экспрессии генов//Докл. АН СССР. -1985. -Т. 284, № 1. -С. 232-237
  18. Степаненко И.Л. Регуляция генных сетей стрессового ответа активными формами кислорода//Экологическая генетика. -2004. (в печати)
  19. Трифонов Э.Н. Генетическое содержание последовательностей ДНК определяется суперпозицией многих кодов//Мол. Биология. -1997. -Т. 31, № 4. -Р. 759-767.
  20. Фогель Ф., Мотульски А. Генетика человека. -М.: Мир, 1990.
  21. Хаусман К. Протозоология. -М.: Мир, 1988.
  22. Abouheif Е., Wray G.A. Evolution of the gene network underlying wing polyphcnism in ants//Science. -2002. -Vol. 297, N 5579. -P. 249-252.
  23. Alberts В., Johnson A., Lewis J. el al. Molecular Biology of the Cell, Fourth Edition. New York: Garland Science, 2002
  24. Ameisen J C. On the origin, evolution, and nature of programmed cell death: a timeline of four billion years//Cell Death Differ. -2002. -Vol. 9, N4.-P. 367-393.
  25. Ayala F.J. Rzhelsky A., Ayala F.J. Origin of the mctazoan phyla: molecular clocks confirm palcontological estimates//Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. -1998. -Vol. 95, N 2. -P. 606-611.
  26. Bell G. The sexual nature of the eukaryotc genome//Journal of Heredity. -1993. -Vol. 84, N 5. -P. 351-359
  27. Biehs В., Sturtevant M.A., Bier E. Boundaries in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc organize vein-specific genetic programs//Development. -1998. -Vol. 125, N 21. -P. 4245^1257.
  28. Black D.L. Protein diversity from alternative splicing: a challenge for bioinformatics and post-genome biology//Cell. -2000. -Vol. 103, N 3. -P. 367-370.
  29. Boclnar J. W. Programming the Drosophila embryo//J. Thcor. Biol. -1997. -Vol. 188, N 4. -P. 391^145
  30. Bonifer С Long-distance chromatin mechanisms controlling tissue-specific gene locus activation//Gene. -1999. -Vol. 238, N 2. -P. 277-289.
  31. Brosius J. Genomes were forged by massive bombardments with rctroclcmcnts and rctroscqucnccs//Gcnctica. -1999. -Vol. 107, N 1-3. -P. 209-238.
  32. Bulger M., Groudine M. Looping versus linking: toward a model for long-distance gene activation//Genes & Development. -1999. -Vol. 13, N 19. -P. 2465-2477.
  33. Carroll SB. Chance and necessity; the evolution of morphological complexity and diversity//Nature. -2001. -Vol. 409, N 6823. -P. 1102-1109.
  34. Cavalier-Smith T. Obcells as proto-organisms: membrane heredity, lithophosphorylation, and the origins of the genetic code, the first cells, and photosynthesis//J. Mol. Evol. -2001. -Vol. 53, N4-5.-P. 555-595.
  35. Cavalier-Smith T. Origins of the machinery of recombination and sex//Heredity. -2002. -Vol. 88, N 2. -P. 125-141.
  36. Cavalier-Smith T. The ncomuran origin of archacbactcria, the ncgibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial mega-classification//Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. -2002. -Vol. 52. -Pt. 1. -P. 7-76.
  37. Computer Analysis of Genetic Macromolcculcs: structure, function and evolution/Eds. N.A. Kolchanov, H.A. Lim. Singapore, etc.: World Scientific, 1994.
  38. Cosma M.P. Ordered recruitment: gene-specific mechanism of transcription activation//Molecular Cell. -2002. -Vol. 10, N 2. -P. 227-236.
  39. Crespi B.J. The evolution of social behavior in microorganisms//Trends Ecol. Evol. -2001. -Vol. 16, N4. -P. 178-183.
  40. Croft L.G'., Lercher M.J., Gagen M.J. MattickJ.S. Is prokaryotic complexity limited by accelerated growth in regulatory overhead?//Genome Biol. -2003.-Vol. 5, N 1. -P 2. -Epub 2003 Dec 15.
  41. Csordas A. A proposal for a possible role of nuclcosomc positioning in the evolutionary adjustment of introns//Int. J. Biochcm. -1989.-Vol. 21, N 5. -P. 455-461.
  42. Davidson E.H., Peterson K.J., Cameron R.A. Origin of adult bila-tcrian body plans: Evolution of developmental regulatory mechanisms//Science. -1995, -Vol. 270, N 5240. -P. 1319-1325.
  43. De Souza S. J., Long M., Schoenbach L. et al. Intron positions correlate with module boundaries in ancient proteins//Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. -1996. -Vol. 93, N 25. -P. 14632-14636.
  44. Denisov DA., Shpigelman E.S., Trifonov E.N. Protective nucleosome centering at splice sites as suggested by sequence-directed mapping of the nuclcosomcs. Gene. -1997. -Vol. 205, N 1-2. -P. 145-149.
  45. Doudna J.A., Cech T.R. The chemical repertoire of natural ribozymes//Nature. -2002. -Vol. 418. -№ 6894. -P. 222-228.
  46. Dworkin M. Recent advances in the social and developmental biology of themyxobactcria//Microbiol.Rev. -1996.-Vol. 60,N 1.-P.70-102.
  47. EigenM. Sclforganization of matter and the evolution of biological macromoleculcs//Naturwisscnschaftcn. -1971. -B. 58. -N 10.-P. 465-523.
  48. El-Shehawy R., Kleiner D. The mystique of irreversibility in cyanobactcrial hctcrocyst formation: parallels to differentiation and senescence in cukaryotic cells//Physiol. Plantarum. -2003, -Vol. 119, N 1. -P. 49-55.
  49. Engelberg-Kulka H., Glaser G. Addiction modules and programmed cell death and antidcath in bacterial cultures//Annu. Rev. Microbiol. -1999. -Vol. 53. -P. 43-70.
  50. Erwin D.H., Davidson E.H. The last common bilatcrian ancestor//Development. -2002. -Vol. 129, N 13. -P. 3021-3032.
  51. Fedorova L., Fedorov A. Introns in gene evolution//Gcnctica. -2003.-Vol. 118, N2.-P. 123-131.
  52. Franch Т., Gerdes K. Programmed cell death in bacteria: trans-lational repression by mRNA end-pairing//Mol. Microbiol. -1996. -Vol. 21, N 5. -P. 1049-1060.
  53. Garcia-Bellido A., de Celis J.F. Developmental genetics of the venation pattern of Drosophila//Annu. Rev. Genet. -1992. -Vol. 26. -P. 277-304.
  54. Gilbert W., De Souza S.J., LongM. Origin of Genes//Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. -1997. -Vol. 94, N 15. -P. 7698-7703.
  55. Gopalan V., Tan T.W., Lee B.T.K., Ranganathan S. Xpro: database of cukaryotic protein-encoding genes//Nucleic Acids Res. -2004. -Vol. 32. -Database issue. -P. D59-D63.
  56. Graveley BR. Alternative splicing: increasing diversity in the protcomic world//Trends Genet. -2001. -Vol. 17, N 2. -P. 100-106.
  57. Hermoso A., Aguilar D., Aviles F.X., Querol E. TrSDB: a protcome database of transcription factors//Nucleic Acids Res. -2004. -Vol. 32. -Database issue. -P. D171-D173.
  58. Holmes A.J., Gillings M.R., Nield B.S. et al. The gene cassette mctagenome is a basic resource for bacterial genome evolution//Environ. Microbiol. -2003. -Vol. 5, N 5. -P. 383-394.
  59. Hombria J. C.-G, Lovegrove B. Beyond homcosis -Hox function in morphogenesis and organogenesis//Differentiation. -2003. -Vol. 71, N8. -P. 461-476.
  60. Jain R., Rivera M.C., Moore J.E. et al. Horizontal gene transfer in microbial genome evolution//Thcor. Popul. Biol. -2002. -Vol. 61, N 4. -P. 489^495.
  61. Johnston W.K., UnrauP.J., Lawrence M.S., etal. RNA-catalyzcd RNA polimerization: Accurate and general RNA-templatcd primer extension//Science. -2001. -Vol. 292, N 5520. -P. 1319-1325.
  62. Joyce G.F. The antiquity of RNA-bascd evolution//Nature. -2002. -Vol. 418, N 6894. -P. 214-221.
  63. Karp P.D., Arnaud M., Collado-Vides J. et al. The E. coli EcoCyc database: No longer just a metabolic pathway database//American Society for Microbiology News. -2004. -Vol. 70, N 1. -P. 25-30.
  64. Kauffman S.A. The Origins of Order. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  65. Kidwell M.G., Lisch D.R. Transposablc elements and host genome evolution//Trends in Ecology and Evolution. -2000. -Vol. 15, N 3. -P. 95-99.
  66. Kolchanov N.A., Ananko E.A., Likhoshvai V.A. et al. Gene networks description and modelling in the GcncNct system//Gene regulation and metabolism: post-genomic computational approaches/Eds.: J. Collado-Vidcs, R. Hofcstadt. Cambridge, etc.: MIT Press. -2002. -P. 149-179.
  67. Kolchanov N.A., Ignatieva E.V., Ananko E.A. et al. Transcription Regulatory Regions Database (TRRD): its status in 2002//Nucleic Acids Research. -2002. -Vol. 30, N 1. -P. 312-317.
  68. Kolchanov N. A., Nedosekina E. A., Ananko E. A. et al. GcncNct database: description and modeling of gene networks.//In Silico Biol. -2002. -Vol. 2, N 2. -P. 97-110.
  69. Kornberg R. D., Lorch Y. Twenty-five years of the nucleosome, fundamental particle of the cukaryotc chromosome//Cell. -1999. -Vol. 98, N 3. -P. 285-294.
  70. Krammer P. H. CD95's deadly mission in the immune system//Nature. -2000. -Vol. 407, N 6805. -P. 789-795.
  71. Kroos L., Zhang В., Ichikawa H., YuY.T. Control of sigma factor activity during Bacillus subtilis sporulation//Mol. Microbiol. -1999. -Vol. 31, N5. -P. 1285-1294.
  72. Levin B.R., Bergstrom C.T. Bacteria arc different: Observations, interpretations, speculations, and opinions about the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in prokaryotcs//Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. -2000. -Vol. 97, N 13. -P. 6981-6985.
  73. Levitsky V.G., Podkolodnaya O.A., Kolchanov N.A., Podkolodny N. L. Nucleosome formation potential of cukaryotic DNA: tools for calculation and promoters analysis//Bioinformatics. -2001. -Vol. 17, N 11.-P. 998-1010.
  74. Lewis K. Programmed death in bacteria//Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. -2000. -Vol. 64, N 3. -P. 503-514.
  75. Li Q., Peterson K.R., Fang X., Stamatoyannopoulos G. Locus control regions//Blood. -2002. -Vol. 100, N 9. -P. 3077-3086.
  76. Li Y. C, Korol А. В., Fahima T. et al. Microsatellitcs: genomic distribution, putative functions and mutational mechanisms: a review.//Molecular Ecology. -2002. -Vol. 11, N 12. -P. 2453-2465.
  77. LongM., Deutsch M., Wang W. el al. Origin of new genes: evidence from experimental and computational analyses//Genetica. -2003. -Vol. 118, N2-3. -P. 171-182.
  78. Lowe S. W., Lin A. W. Apoptosis in cancer//Carcinogenesis. -2000. -Vol. 21, N 3. -P. 485-495.
  79. Ludwig M.Z., Bergman C, Patel N.H., Kreitman M. Evidence for stabilizing selection in a cukaryotic enhancer clement//Nature. -2000. -Vol. 403, N 6769. -P. 564-567.
  80. Lynch M., Conery J.S. The origins of genome complexity//Science. -2003. -Vol. 302, N 5649. -P. 1401-1404.
  81. Lynn M.E., Bantle J.A., Ownby J.D. Estimation of gene expression in hctcrocysts of Anabaena variabilis by using DNA-RNA hybridization.//J. Bacterid. -1986. -Vol. 167, N 3. -P. 940-946.
  82. Mahmoudi Т., Verrijzer C.P. Chromatin silencing and activation by Polycomb and trithorax group proteins//Oncogene. -2001. -Vol. 20, N 24. -P. 3055-3066.
  83. Martin W., Russell M.J. On the origins of cells: a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoauto-trophic prokaryotcs, and from prokaryotcs to nucleated cells//Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. -2003. -Vol. 358, N 1429.-P. 59-85.
  84. Martinez-Castilla LP, Alvarez-Buylla E.R. Adaptive evolution in the Arabidopsis MADS-box gene family inferred from its complete resolved phylogcny//Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. -2003. -Vol. 100, N 23. -P. 13407-13412.
  85. MattickJ.S., Gagen M.J. The evolution of controlled multitasked gene networks: the role of introns and other noncoding RNAs in the development of complex organisms//Mol. Biol. Evol. -2001. -Vol. 18, N9.-P. 1611-1630.
  86. McShea D.W. The minor transitions in hierarchical evolution and the question of a directional bias//Journal of Evolutionary Biology. -2001. -Vol. 14, N 3. -P. 502-518.
  87. Meeks J.C., Elhai J., Potts M. et. al. An overview of the genome of Nostoc punctiforme, a multicellular, symbiotic cyanobactcrium//Photosyn. Res. -2001. -Vol. 70, N 1. -P. 85-106.
  88. Meier P., Finch A., Evan G Apoptosis in development//Nature. -2000. -Vol. 407, N 6805. -P. 796-801.
  89. Moszer I., Jones L. M., Moreira S. et al. SubtiList: the reference database for the Bacillus subtilis genome//Nucleic Acids Res. -2002. -Vol. 30, N 1. -P. 62-65.
  90. Nakamura Y, Koyama K, Matsushima M. VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat) sequences as transcriptional, translational, or functional regulators//Journal of Human Genetics. -1998. -Vol. 43, N 3. -P. 149-152.
  91. Narlikar G.J., Fan H.-Y, Kingston R.E. Cooperation between complexes that regulate chromatin structure and transcription//Cell. -2002. -Vol. 108, N 4. -P. 475-487.
  92. Nasiadka A., Dietrich B.H., Krause H.M. Anterior-posterior patterning in the Drosophila embryo//Advances in developmental biology and biochemistry, Vol. 12/Ed. M. DePamphilis. New York: Elsevier, 2002.-P. 155-204.
  93. Peri S., Navarro J.D., Amanchy R. et al. Development of human protein reference database as an initial platform for approaching systems biology in humans//Genome Research. -2003. -Vol. 13, N 10.-P. 2363-2371.
  94. Peterson K.J., Cameron R.A., Davidson E.H. Bilatcrian Origins: significance of new experimental observations//Dcv. Biol. -2000.-Vol. 219, N 1. -P. 1-17.
  95. Peterson K. J., Eernisse D. J. Animal phylogcny and the ancestry of bilatcrians: inferences from morphology and 18S rDNA gene sequences//Evol. Dcv. -2001. -Vol. 3, N 3. -P. 170-205.
  96. Philippe H., Douady C.J. Horizontal gene transfer and phylogenc-tics//Current Opinion in Microbiology. -2003. -Vol. 6, N 5. -P. 498-505.
  97. Ponomarenko J.V., Furman DP, Frolov A.S. et al. ACTIVITY: a database on DNA/RNA sites activity adapted to apply sequence-activity relationships from one system to another//Nucleic Acids Res. -2001. -Vol. 29, N 1. -P. 284-287.
  98. Ponomarenko J.V., Ponomarenko M.P., Frolov A.S. et al. Conformational and physicochcmical DNA features specific for transcription factor binding sites//Bioinformatics. -1999. -Vol. 15, N 7-8. -P. 654-668.
  99. Ponzielli R., Astier A/., Chartier A. et al. Heart tube patterning in Drosophila requires integration of axial and segmental information provided by the Bithorax Complex genes and hedgehog signaling//Development. -2002. -Vol. 129, N 19. -P. 4509^521.
  100. Purugganan M.D. The molecular population genetics of regulatory genes//Mol. Ecol. -2000. -Vol. 9, N 10.-P. 1451-1461.
  101. Riechmann V., Ephrussi A. Axis formation during Drosophila oogenesis//Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. -2001. -Vol. 11, N4. -P. 374-383.
  102. Rijkin S.A., Kim J., White K.P. Evolution of gene expression in the Drosophila mclanogaster subgroup//Nat. Genet. -2003. -Vol. 33, N2.-P. 138-144.
  103. Rogozin IB., Makarova K.S., Natale D.A. el al. Congruent evolution of different classes of non-coding DNA in prokaryotic genomes//Nucleic Acids Res. -2002. -Vol. 30, N 19. -P. 4264-4271.
  104. Rubin G.M., Yandell M.D., WortmanJ.R. el al. Comparative genomics of the eukaryotes//Science. -2000. -Vol. 287, N 5461. -P. 2204-2215.
  105. Sakharkar M., Passetti F., de Souza J.E. et al. Exlnt: an exon intron database//Nucleic Acids Res. -2002. -Vol. 30, N 1. -P. 191-194.
  106. Satchwell S.C., Drew H.R., Travers A.A. Sequence periodicities in chicken nuclcosomc core DNA//J. Mol. Biol. -1986. -Vol. 191, N 4. -P. 659-675.
  107. Saxonov S., Daizadeh I., Fedorov A., Gilbert W. EID: the exon-intron databasc-an exhaustive database of protein-coding intron-containing genes//Nucleic Acids Res. -2000. -Vol. 28, N 1. -P. 185-190.
  108. Schidlowski M. A 3,800-million-ycar isotopic record of life from carbon in sedimentary rocks//Nature.-1988. -Vol. 333, N 6171. -P. 313-318.
  109. Stathopoulos A., Levine M. Dorsal gradient networks in the drosophila embryo//Developmental Biology. -2002. -Vol. 246, N 1. -P. 57-67.
  110. Stepanenko I.L., Podkolodnaya O.A., Kolchanov N.A. Gene networks: principles of organization and mechanisms of operation and integration//Proceedings of the third international conference on Bioinformatics of Genome Regulation and Structure. -2002. -Vol. 2.-P. 111-115
  111. Strobel S.A. Biological catalysis: Rcpopulating the RNA World//Nature. -2001. -Vol. 411, N 6841. -P. 1003-1004.
  112. Szostak J.W., Barlel DP, Luisi PL. Synthesizing life//Nature. -2001. -Vol. 409, N 6818. -P. 387-390.
  113. Taft R.J., MatlickJ.S. Increasing biological complexity is positively correlated with the relative genomc-wide expansion of non-protcin-coding DNA sequences//Genome Biology. -2003. -Vol. 5, N 1. PI. Epub2003 Dec 01
  114. Tamames J. Evolution of gene order conservation in prokaryotes//Ge nome Biol. -2001. -Vol. 2, N 6. Rescarch0020. Epub2001 JunOl
  115. Teichmann S.A., Babu M.M. Conservation of gene co-regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes//Trends Biotcchnol. -2002 -Vol. 20, N 10. -P. 407-410.
  116. The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana//Nature. -2000. -Vol. 408, N 6814. -P. 796-815.
  117. The Gene Ontology Consortium. The Gene Ontology (GO) database and informatics resource//Nucleic Acids Res. -2004. -Vol. 32. Database issue. -P. D258-D261.
  118. Trifonov E.N. Consensus temporal order of amino acids and evolution of the triplet code//Gene. -2000. -Vol. 261, N 1. -P. 139-151.
  119. Velicer G.J., Lenski RE., Kroos L. Rescue of social motility lost during evolution of Myxococcus xanthus in an asocial environment.//J. Bacterid. -2002. -Vol. 184, N 10. -P. 2719-2727.
  120. Vellai Т., Vida G. The origin of eukaryotes: the difference between prokaryotic and cukaryotic cells//Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. -Vol. 266, N 1428. -P. 1571-1577.
  121. Wolk C.P. Prokaryotic Development//Hctcrocyst formation in Anabacna/Eds.: Y. Braun, L. J. Shimkets. Washington: American Society of Microbiology, 2000. -P. 83-103.
  122. Zhang J. Evolution by gene duplication: an update//Trends in Ecology and Evolution. -2003. -Vol. 18, N 6. -P. 292-298.
  123. Zuckerkandl E. Why so many noncoding nucleotides? The cukaryote genome as an epigenetic machine//Genctica. -2002. -Vol. 115, N 1-P. 105-129.
  124. Опарин A.M. Жизнь, ее природа, происхождение и развитие. -М.: Наука, 1968

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 361

PDF (Russian) - 221

Cited-By


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2004 Suslov V.V., Gunbin K.V., Kolchanov N.A.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies