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Vol 11, No 4 (2013)

Genetic and morphological diversification in gastropods of the Baicaliidae family
Kovalenkova M.V., Sitnikova T.Y., Shcherbakov D.Y.
Background: Molecular phylogenetic studies of Baikalian endemic gastropod family Baicaliidae as well as the morphological comparisons have not yet provided a fully resolved phylogeny of this family. There is a need to increase the current set of markers to solve current difficulties. Intronic nuclear markers can be used as a valuable tool for phylogenetics. Methods: Nucleotide sequences for the intron of ATP-synthase alpha-subunit gene from 11 gastropod species belonging to the fast evolving Baikalian endemic family Baicaliidae together with the morphological traits and previously obtained mitochondrial COI sequences were used to build a synthetic species tree. Results: A Phylogenetic tree built using only intron sequences contains less polytomies than the one built using sequences of the mitochondrial gene CO1 and is compatible with the morphological views. Intronic marker provides high support for the interspecific clades. Topology of the tree built using the intronic marker mainly corresponds to morphology based systematics of eleven investigated species of this family. The only exception was Godlewskia wrzesniowski, which were placed within the clade of species from Korotnewia and Parabaikalia genera, though it has significant morphological differences from these genera. Conclusions: Sister species were shown to diverge within the same substrate preferences. Observed discrepancies between the species tree and current taxonomy of the group may be explained by fast morphological evolution in the Baicaliidae family.
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(4):3-11
Features of the organization and functioning of a unique class of plant receptor kinases containing lysm-motives in the extracellular domain
Kirienko A.N., Leppyanen I.V., Dolgikh E.A.
Analysis of current data concerning functioning, structural organization and evolutionary aspects of origin for a unique class of the plant LysM-receptors has been performed. Plant receptors with LysM-motifs in the extracellular domain act as mediators in recognition of N-acetylglucosamine-containing compounds. Such compounds from pathogenic bacteria and fungi cause activation of plant defense systems, while the compounds secreted by symbiotic microorganisms trigger endosymbiosis formation. A possible mode of receptor operation in binding of structurally similar microbial signals, that leads to pathogen resistance or endosymbiosis development, as well as the role of LysM-receptors in these processes, have been examined.
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(4):12-22
Identification of filamentous green algae from an area of local biogenic pollution of Lake Baikal (Listvennichnyy bay) using SSU 18S rDNA molecular marker
Romanova E.V., Kravtsova L.S., Izhboldina L.A., Khanaev I.V., Sherbakov D.Y.
Background. A local eutrophication process is noted for the first time in Listvennichnyi bay in Lake Baikal. High level of biogenic elements in the water of the bay led to nuisance growth of filamentous algae. Rapid identification of these algae's taxa was necessary to assess ecosystem damage in the polluted area of the lake. Materials and methods. We determined a boundary of bottom fouling by locating transects ranging from 0 to 10 meters in different areas of the bay. Algae samples were examined using microscopic techniques as well as SSU 18S rDNA sequencing. Phylogenetic trees were estimated using Bayesian inference (BI) based on SSU alignment. Results. Our results showed intensive filamentous algae fouling in depth from 3 to 10 meters along the coastline of the eastern part of the bay. Morphological and molecular analysis demonstrated prevalence in samples of Ulothrix zonata (Web. et Mohr) Kütz. Using SSU 18S rDNA sequencing data we also showed presence of three species of Spirogyra Link. genus. Conclusion. Detection of Spirogyra species which are normally not typical for such areas of the lake along with Ulothrix zonata extended more deeply than usually observed reveals severe phytocenosis disturbance of the polluted part of Lake Baikal.
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(4):23-33
Divergence in expression of PHO3, 5, 11, 12 paralogues yeasts is the mechanism guiding the evolution of multigene families
Sambuk E.V., Padkina M.V.
This review considers evolution of multigene families based on the example of the PHO gene family, which encodes acid phosphatases. An analysis of databases revealed that the divergence of regulation of structural genes transcription and their involvement in novel regulatory pathways, is the main direction in evolution of multigene families.
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(4):34-44
Ramaniuk V.P., Nikitchenko N.V., Savina N.V., Kuzhir T.D., Goncharova R.I.
Background. DNA damage and induced mutational events are known to contribute notably to carcinogenesis, so the study of excision repair gene polymorphisms and their association with cancer risk is of great interest and importance. Materials and Methods. Excision repair gene polymorphisms (XRCC1 Arg399Gln, hOGG1 Ser326Cys, XPD Asp312Asn) were analyzed using a PCR-RFLP method in the group of bladder cancer (BC) patients compared to clinically healthy individuals. Results. In the healthy population, the frequencies of the minor alleles of XPD 312, XRCC1 399, hOGG1 326 genes were 42,1 %, 35,4 % and 24,4 %, respectively, i. e., in the range of values observed in Caucasian populations. The frequencies of genotypes/alleles in the group of BC patients did not differ from those in the control group. However, the frequency of Asn allele of XPD gene was significantly higher in men with BC recurrences as compared to primary tumors. The cancer risk was decreased in carriers of combined Asp/Asp, Arg/Arg, Ser/Ser genotypes of XPD, XRCC1 and hOGG1 genes (OR95 %CI = 0,46 [0,23 - 0,91] p = 0,024 and OR95 %CI = 0,42 [0,18 - 0,98] p = 0,045 for combination of two and three genes, respectively). Conclusion. In Belarus, the frequencies of the XPD, XRCC1 and hOGG1 minor alleles are similar to those in Caucasian populations. Although single nucleotide polymorphisms investigated did not affect the risk of bladder cancer, the risk of cancer recurrence was increased in carriers of the XPD Asn allele. Combined homozygous wild type alleles of indicated excision repair genes appeared to possess a protective effect against carcinogenesis.
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(4):45-63
Kleshchev M.A., Gutorova N.V., Osadchuk L.V.
Background. Agonistic behavior is necessary for formation of dominant-subordinate relationship and for maintenance of social hierarchy in animal communities. However? there are few reports about the genetic features of agonistic behavior development in animals living in stable social groups. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of agonistic behavior in male mice of different genotype and social status under stable social hierarchy conditions. Materials and methods. We studied the age dynamics of offensive attacks, the vertical defensive postures and the “runaway” behavior in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac housed in genetically heterogeneous pairs during puberty (from 38 to 70 days of life). Results. Dominant-subordinate relationships were stable in 80 % of pairs during the experiment. During the period of stable social hierarchy we observed a transient increase in the number of offensive attacks at the end of puberty in dominants of the strain CBA/Lac but not in PT. Conclusion. In conclusion, the study revealed a significant influence of social rank and genotype on the development of patterns of social behavior in laboratory male mice during puberty.
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(4):64-72
Simulation of evolution of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis under the conditions of ecological instability
Vorobyov N.I., Provorov N.A.
The mathematical model is constructed which describes the impacts of chaotically changing environment on the frequencies and productivity of partners in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The most sensitive for external impacts are the adaptively prospective bacteria strains which are specific with respect to hosts and are capable for the intensive evolution towards an improved symbiotic efficiency. An increased stability of these strains in symbiotic system may be an important factor of its evolution for the improved efficiency of partners’ interaction.
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(4):73-85
Krutylo D.V., Zotov V.S.
Background. Distribution of root nodule bacteria of soybean in soils of Ukraine is the result of intensive cultivation of soybeans over the last 20 years. During the observation the structure of soybean rhizobia populations for the first time we have determined the strains which significantly differ in phenotypic properties from typical slow-growing bacteria of B. japonicum species previously described. These strains are characterized by high speed growth and we tentatively called them “stains with intensive growth”. The aim of our work was to investigate the genotypic properties of microsymbionts of soybeans with different rates of growth spreading in soils of Ukraine. Materials and methods. The 16S rRNA gene and intergenic 16S-23S rRNA region of six strains - typical representatives of soybean nodule bacteria with slow- and intensive growth-rates was carried out. The strains were picked up from different Ukrainian soils. Results. Analysis of the 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences showed the 100% similarity of slow-growing strains to B. japonicum USDA 6T and USDA 4 ones. This analysis proved propinquity of strains with intensive growth to the strain B. japonicum USDA 127 (USDA 123 group). Representatives of this group possessed increased saprophytic competence so as the examined strains. With use of restriction analysis of ITS intergenic region soybean rhizobia were divided among two ITS types: 1st ITS type - strains with intensive growth, 2nd ITS type - slow- growing strains. According to results of ITS-region sequencing soybean rhizobia form 3 reliably different clusters: two of which include slow-growing strains (group USDA 6 and USDA 4), and a third include soybean microsymbionts with intensive growth (USDA 123 group). Conclusion. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic (16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA) analysis all of the investigated soybean strains of root nodule bacteria were related to the Bradyrhizobium japonicum species. The division of strains by the structure of the ITS-region into two genotypes corresponds to the division of strains into two physiological groups: the strains of an intense and slow growth.
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(4):86-95

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