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Vol 3, No 3 (2005)

Articles
Interplay of Darwinian and frequency-dependent selection in the host-associated microbial population
Vorobyov N.I., Provorov N.A.
Abstract
The method for mathematical simulation is suggested to analyze the balanced polymorphism in rhizobia population generated due to the interplay of Darwinian and frequency-dependent selection. Analysis of the model suggested that this polymorphism is determined not only by the selection pressures but also by the capacities of ecological niches occupied by bacteria in the «plant-soil» system. The model may be used for analyzing the selective processes in various symbiotic systems and for predicting the consequences of releasing of genetically modified plant symbionts into environment.
Ecological genetics. 2005;3(3):3-11
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Adaptive role of tmRNA
Zhouravleva G.A., Rovinski N.S.
Abstract
тmRNA is a small RNA molecule, found only in bacteria, that exhibits properties of tRNA and mRNA. TmRNA involved in process of «trans-translation» when protein translates from two different RNA molecules and one of them is tmRNA. Its function is decreasing of translation error amount by releasing of stalled ribosomes and degradation of incorrect proteins.
Ecological genetics. 2005;3(3):12-18
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Molecular basis of applying antimutagens as anticarcinogens
Goncharova R.I., Kuzhir T.D.
Abstract
The paper presents a review of current data on mechanisms of natural and synthetic antimutagen action underlying the expediency and availability of their application as anticarcinogens. Previously, some molecular processes involved in carcinogenesis as well as some therapeutic targets are considered. The effects of antimutagens on those or other molecular targets have been summarized in table. Along with the literature data on plant antimutagens, some experimental results and supposed mechanisms of the 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives have been analyzed.
Ecological genetics. 2005;3(3):19-32
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Association of promoter region polymorhism of the tnfб gene with the development of atopic bronchial asthma
Ostankova J.V., Ivashchenko T.E., Zhelenina L.A., Baranov V.S.
Abstract
Atopic bronchial asthma (ABA) is a complex genetic disease characterized by increased airway responsiveness to a variety of stimuli, reversible airway obstruction, and airway inflammation. The genetic polymorphisms -238 A/G and -308 A/G of the TNFA gene were studied by PCR-RFLP analysis in the group of asthmatic patients with age of manifestation before 18 years (83) and the population group (117). According to obtained data the frequency of -238A allele of the TNFA gene was significantly lower in the group of patients with ABA (1,2%) as compared to the population group (5,6%). The analysis of distribution of the G -308A polymorphism of the TNFA gene revealed significant increase of the frequency of -308A allele in the patients with ABA (9,0%) as compared to the population (4,0%). According to odds ratio the careers of -308A allele of the TNFA gene have 2-fold increased risk of the development of ABA (OR = 2,48; CI: 1,06-5,82). The frequency of -308A allele of the TNFA gene in the group of patients was significantly higher in women (14,8 %) as compared to men (2,6 %, p = 0,0064, df = 1). After comparing the distribution of genotypes of -238 and -308 polymorphisms of the TNFA gene together significant difference between patients with ABA and population was observed. Combined genotype -238A/G + -308G/G of the TNFA gene associated with the lowest level of gene expression resulted in considerable decrease of ABA risk (OR = 0,097). Different hypotheses of the role of polymorphic variants of the TNFA gene in pathogenesis of ABA were discussed.
Ecological genetics. 2005;3(3):33-37
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Quality of life and individual susceptibility of human genome. Whether there is an exit from a vicious circle?
Ingel F.I.
Abstract
The review is devoted to analysis of the connection between parameters of quality of life, state of illness and individual susceptibility of human genome. It is demonstrated, that state of dysadaptation (nonadaptative stress, is describing by H. Selye as reduction of adaptive potential of an organism) for human can be developed both in result of influence of social and/or emotional factors and impact of toxic (genotoxic) chemicals. Using data of literature and results of own studies is shown, that the state of nonadaptive stress is characterized, besides other, an increased genome susceptibility to influence of complex of environmental factors. Thus, in real life is creates «vicious circle» of negative influences on human health: the emotional dysadaptation lead to the perception of social factors pressure as more grinding, what only increases dysadaptation of an organism; thus is creat predisposition to the diseases being the first targets of nonadaptive stress - illnesses of cardiovascular and neuro-immune-endocrinic system, and also to chronic diseases of a gastrointestinal; an action of environmental pollution on a background of the reduced adaptive potential is resulted in increasing of genome instability - therefore the complex of illnesses, including early ageing and cancer, can be developed. For the end are shown the data of literature on the connection between social structure in different countries and state of health of population living in them and is concluded that democratization of a society, respect of human rights and personal freedoms are one of effective ways of an exit from the vicious circle.
Ecological genetics. 2005;3(3):38-45
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