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Vol 8, No 3 (2010)

Articles
MOLECULAR-GENETIC BASIS OF HIGHER PLANTS TOLERANCE TO, AND ACCUMULATION OF, CADMIUM
Kulaeva O.A., Tsyganov V.E.
Abstract
 Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most wide-ranged and dangerous pollutants for all living organisms, including plants. At present time the intensive studies of mechanisms of Cd accumulation in plant tissues and plant tolerance to its toxic influence are performed. Data about variation of Cd tolerance and accumulation traits in natural populations of hyperaccumulators species as well as important crops were obtained. A series of mutants with changed sensitivity to Cd was obtained. In recent decade several classes of proteins involving in cell responses to Cd ions were revealed. An important role of microRNA in plant adaptation to Cd was recently demonstrated. Studies of molecular-genetic mechanisms of Cd accumulation and plant tolerance to it are theoretical basis for development of phytoremediation technologies of soil contaminated with heavy metals and breeding of crop varieties with decreased Cd accumulation.
Ecological genetics. 2010;8(3):3-15
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METABOLISM OF OSTEOTROPIC TOXICAL SUBSTANCES: HEREDITARY DETERMINATION
Starichenko V.I.
Abstract
 The hereditary component of the variability (intrafamily correlation) of the metabolism of osteotropic toxical substances — <sup>90</sup>Sr (a single injection) and stable fluorine (a chronic entering) were evaluated in laboratory linear mice in comparison with correlation of the morphological signs, hereditary of development of which is known. The evaluation was made with the control of the effects of sex, age and linear membership of animals and also taking into account the conditions of their development and the size of offspring. Significant intrafamily correlation of the concentration of <sup>90</sup>Sr and of fluorine in bone tissuewas revealed (r = 0,4–0,5; p < 0,0001). It can be compared with the correlation of morphological signs, which is the evidence of hereditary determinacy of the metabolism of osteotropic toxical substances.
Ecological genetics. 2010;8(3):27-37
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SIMULATION OF EVOLUTION OF THE LEGUME-RHIZOBIA SYMBIOSIS FOR AN IMPROVED FUNCTIONAL INTEGRITY OF PARTNERS AND FOR ECOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF THEIR INTERACTION
Vorobyov N.I., Provorov N.A.
Abstract
Simulation of evolution in the legume-rhizobial symbiosis allowed us to suggest the mathematical criterion (index) for the functional integrity of symbiosis (FIS). Calculation of FIS index is based on analysis of the covariance matrix of partners’ frequencies influenced by fluctuations of the systemic parameters. The positive correlations of FIS with ecological efficiency of symbiosis (its impact on the seed productivity of plants) and a negative correlation with the partners’ diversity indices were demonstrated. The revealed dependences allow us to explain the increasing of structural-functional integrity in mutualistic symbiosis byoperation of the natural selection in favor of an improved ecological efficiency of partners’ interactions.
Ecological genetics. 2010;8(3):16-26
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THE GENETICS OF CHLOROPHYLL BIOSYNTHESIS: LIGHT-INDEPENDENT AND LIGHT-DEPENDENT PATHWAYS
Chekunova E.M.
Abstract
 The review summarizes contemporary genetical, molecular biological and biochemical data on the two protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR), enzymes responsible of light-dependent (LPOR) and dark-operative (DPOR) protochlorophyllide reduction. Evolutionary aspects of origin and functioning of these enzymes are also discussed. The main focus of this review will be the genetics of archaic dark chlorophyll biosynthesis.
Ecological genetics. 2010;8(3):38-51
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MOLECULAR VARIATION AND PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE MOSS CAMPION SILENE ACAULIS (L.) JACQ. (CARYOPHYLLACEAE) IN THE NORTH OF EUROPE AND THE SVALBARD ARCHIPELAGO
Mikhaylova Y.V., Gusarova G.L., Brochmann C.
Abstract
Molecular variation in 49 populations of Silene acaulis was studied using AFLP multilocus markers. Data obtained support postglacial colonization of the North the from southern European mountain refugia. Most of the northern European populations are characterized by lower genetic diversity and poor genetic structure, as compared to the southern mountain populations. High Arctic archipelago Shpitsbergen have been colonized by Silene acaulis from several sources, of which the most significant is eastern Greenland.
Ecological genetics. 2010;8(3):52-60
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CHANGE OF POLYMORPHISM LEVEL IN COLORADO POTATO BEETLE POPULATIONS IN THE SOUTHERN URALS
Udalov M.B., Benkovskaya G.V.
Abstract
Data has been presented by the changing of phenetic structure of Colorado potato beetle populations in the Southern Urals (territory of Bashkortostan). The reduction of phenetic polymorphism level during the period of 1994–2002 has been noted. The results of laboratory toxicological experiments allow considering the selective effects of insecticides as one of main factors of intrapopulation polymorphism level decreasing.
Ecological genetics. 2010;8(3):61-66
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THE ROLE OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS DFOXO, DSIR2 AND HSP70 IN LIFESPAN ALTERATION OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER IN DIFFERENT LIGHT CONDITIONS
Moskalev A.A., Malysheva O.A.
Abstract
It was investigated the role of stress-response genes (dFOXO, dSir2, Hsp70) in regulation of life span of Drosophila in response to light regime alteration. It was revealed the FOXO-dependant mechanism of lifespan increasing at darkness conditions. The distance of lifespan of FOXO homozygous mutants at different light conditions were absent 3 times from 4 times. It was shown, that homozygotes with deletion of dSir2 have more significant difference between lifespan at standard light and darkness conditions with comparing to wild type and heterozygous strain. The same tendency was also detected the in the strains with Hsp70 deletions. It was produced the evidences of two mechanisms of light regime influence on lifespan: metabolism intensification at light conditions and neuroendocrine-determinated lifespan increasing at darkness conditions.
Ecological genetics. 2010;8(3):67-80
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